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Swimmer in the Econo-mist 

Deutsche Guggenheim berlin 



James Rosenquist: 

The Swimmer in the Econo-mist 

Curated by Robert Rosenblum 

Deutsche Guggenheim Berlin 
March 7 -June 14, 1998 

c 1998 The Solomon R. Guggenheim 
Foundation, New York. All rights reserved. 

All works by James Rosenquist reproduced in 
this book G James Rosenquist/ Licensed by 
VAGA, New York Used by permission. 
All rights reserved. 

ISBN 0-89207-204-0 

Guggenheim Museum Publications 

1071 Fifth Avenue 

New York, New York 10128 

Designed by Margot Perman, Real Design 

Printed m Germany by Cantz 

Photo credits; cat nos. 1, 3, p 12 Lee Ewing, 
cat no 2: Peter Foe, cat. nos. 4-15, p 34: 
Ellen Labenski, fig. nos. 1, 11: courtesy of the 
James Rosenquist studio, fig no 3 t 1998 
The Museum of Modern Art, New York, fig. 

Rhemisches Bildarchiv Koln; fig. no. 6: 
George Holzer; fig. no 7 c 1996 The 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, fig no. 8: 
c 1998 Estate of Pablo Picasso/Artists Rights 
Society (ARS), New York, photo by Giraudon/ 
Art Resource, New York, fig. no. 10: all rights 
reserved, The Metropolitan Museum of Art 
Images of Rosenquist in his studio by 
Gianfranco Gorgom 

Front cover- The Swimmer in the Econo-mist, 
(painting 2), 1997 (cat. no 2) 

Pp 6, 24: James Rosenquist working on 

The Swimmer In the Econo-mist in his studio in 

Aripeka, Fla., 1997 

P 12: Detail of The Swimmer in the 
Econo-mist (painting 3). 1997 (cat. no. 3) 

P 18 Detail of Rosenquist in his studio 

P. 34 Detail of study for The Swimmer in the 
Econo-mist (painting 3), 1997 (cat no. 11) 



Interview with James Rosenquist 


The Swimmer in the Econo-mist: 

The Paintings 

Swimming in the Mist: 
Another Time, Another Country 


The Swimmer in the Econo-mist: 

Select Exhibition History 
and Bibliography 



3 50 \ 2" 50 in. 3.50 \ 14.60 m and 3 50 \ 6.10 m — this, in a nutshell, 
is the formal description ofjames Rosenquist's new work, rhese are the dimensions of The Swimmei in the Econo-mist, a three-part 
painting made specially b\ the American artist for Pouts, he 
Guggenheim Berlin.The first showing of a work commissioned for the 
gallery, its presentation follows the historically focused inaugural 
exhibition. Visions of Paris. Robert Delaunay's Series, and more exhibitions 
are to tome 

mmissioned works form an important part of our program. 
i )ur intention is to contribute to Berlin's cultural life with relatively 
compact but out oi-the-ordm..r\ exhibitions tailored to our space. The 
response has been overwhelming. More than 45,000 visitors saw 
Delaunay's Paris paintings. I ongei opening hours and tree admission on 
Mondays were positively received, as were the guided tours and 
lunchtime lectures. Our special events, including a "Soiree Delauna) 
and a film series entitled "Visions of Paris," were sold out. 

Rosenquist is one of American Pop art's most important 
representatives. He achieved international acclaim with his first large- 
s< ale canvas, /-///. completed in 1965.The biggest Pop art painting in 
the world at that time, with a width of more than twenty-six meters, it shown after its debut at the Leo Castelli Gallery in New York at 
several ol Europe's most important museums m a traveling exhibition 

In subsequent years. Rosenquist has produced further "big 
paintings" Prior to The Swimmei in the Econo-mist, he painted The Holy 
Roman Empire through Check l>><nit Charlie (1994), which alludes to 

Rosenquist gained wide recognition in Germany in the 1960s. 
The collector Peter Ludwig met him in 1968 and soon afterwards 
purchased Horse Blinders (1968-69), tod. in one of the artistic highlights 
of the Ludwig Museum in Cologne The work, which is more than 
twenty-five meters wide, is one of Rosenquist's "environmental 
paintings." the term for a series of paintings that, like I - I I I. cover the 

walls of an exhibition space to create a "room" themselves. The Swimmei 
in the Econo-mist, created for Deutsche Guggenheim Berlin's gallery, is 
such a wraparound work, but transcends earlier ones in terms of size 
To show historically important material from a contemporary 
perspective .\n^\ support the creation of new work — this mission defines 
our cultural activities in Berlin, now and in the future. 

Dr. Rolf-E. Breuei 

Spokesman of the Board of Managing Directors, Deutsche Bank AG 


One of the primary missions of the Deutsche Guggenheim Berlin is to 
commission major works by the most prominent and promising artists 
of our time. The elegant simplicity of the Richard Gluckman-designed 
gallery is intended to provide an uniting setting in which artists can 
realize their own visions. With the spectacular suite of three paintings 
entitled The Swimmet in the Econo-mist (1997-98), made expressly for our 
new exhibition spate in Berlin, James Rosenquist has given this program 
a remarkable launching. 

Rosenqmst and 1 began discussions regarding the commission in 
November 1996, the month of the most recent presidential election in 
the United Stales: the paintings were completed in 1998, the year of a 
general election in Germany. The timing proved to be auspicious. As the 
artist has repeatedly said, tor him. election years are tilled with the 
possibility ot change, kosenquist's first two monumental room-scale 
works, /-/// (1964-65) and Horse Blinders (1968-69), were also begun 
in election \ ears, during a particularly charged period in American 
history. It was a time of prosperity, but also of the Vietnam War, race 
riots, and political assassinations 

Like those murals from three decades ago. The Swimmer in the 
Econo-mist is a history painting for our time and is realized on the 
grandest scale. Indeed, it .s a painting about change— in the world and 
for the artist himself It is. in Rosenquist's words, about "the tumult of 
our economy," the upS and downs experienced around the world and. m 
particular, m the United States today and in Germany in the years after 
reunification. The swirling vortices that barrel across the vast expanse of 
these paintings and give the work its exceptional dynamism mark an 
entirely new direction m the artist's visual vocabulary 

Rosenqu.sts own history at the Guggenheim stems ba.k to his 
inclusion in Lawrence Allow avs Six Painters and the Object in 1963, i 
milestone exhibition for the emergence of Pop art in the United States 
We have ,ont. nued to express our commitment to Rosenquist's work, 
not only through our involvement with this commission, but with the 

recent acquisition of his Flamingo Capsule This important mural from 

1970, with motifs that reappear in The Sim, una in '/" Econo-mist, is 
among the works that form the foundation of the collection of the 
Guggenheim Museum Bilbao 

Roseiuiuist is well known in ( German} Sin< t the mid- 1960s, his 
paintings have been included m innumerable gallery and museum 
exhibitions throughout the country, and he was the subje< I ol a mid 
career retrospective at the Wallraf-Richartz Museum in < ologne in 
1972. '/'//<• Strtiiimci in the Econo-mist, however, is his first majoi 
commission tor the ( it) oi Berlin. 

A commitment to enriching the arts in Berlin is central to oui 
partnership with Deutsche Bank M\ thanks ^^ especially to Dr. Rolf- 
E. Breuer, Spokesman of the Board of Managing Directors, who with 

tremendous interest and goodwill has carried on the program of enlight- 
ened support of the visual arts originally conceived by Ins predecessor. 
Hilmar Kopper, Chairman ol the Supervisory Board I am also deeply 
grateful to Dr Ariane Grigoteit and Friedhelm Hutte.who with intel- 
ligence md professionalism have successfully coordinated with the 
Guggenheim stafFto realize this exhibition 

Throughout the planning stage of the commission, the expertise 

ot Lisa Dennison, Chief Curator and Deputy Director and of Robert 
Rosenblum, Curator of Twentieth-Century Art, proved invaluable 1 am 

also grateful to Professor Rosenblum tor having organized this exhibition. 
and to fulia Blaut, Assistant Curator, who worked with him so ably 

My deepest thanks, however, go Rosenquist himself Mis 
intense work over the past year has ensured the success ofthis presen- 
tation and its accompanying i atalogue. 

Thomas Krens 

Director, The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation 









IBLUM: Jim, going back through 
the decades, from the 1960s to the present, 
I realize that you've had any number of big 
public commissions in your career. 

JAMES ROSENQUIST: Not many, about twelve 

Well, that sounds like a lot to me. Anyway, 
for starters, I'd like to know how you feel about 
this one in terms of your earlier murals. How 
does it fit in? 

JR: In 1964, I decided to do a painting during an 
election year 

RR: That's when you started F-lll? 

JR: Yes. I had quite a bit of life and painting experi- 
ence up until then, doing industrial painting and 
painting large signs in Brooklyn andTimes Square 
I thought I'd start out nonobjective but optimistic 
As the election year began, I wished for the best. 
1 wondered which wa\ the painting would go 
I thought about inv existence as ,1 person living in 
the United States, where I came from, where I grew 
up — the whole thing — and 1 wondered what 1 
could do. What did life mean to me! 

So that's when I really began wondering, Was m\ 
life a joke? All I knew was what I read in the papers, 
and things happen in an election year People hope 
tor change, but artists .ire more optimistic IheViet- 
11,1111 War had started. Earlier. I had met Paul Berg, 
who did a piece on Roy I lchtenstein and myself for 

the St Louis Post-Dispatch, and in '''4 he had just 
come back from seven combat missions And Paul 
brought that information directl) to the people in 

St I ouis 1 hex got the news trom the horse's 

At that time, my parents lived in Dallas, Ie\as, 
and John Kenned\ had (list been assassinated I had 

been in Dallas a month before his assassination 

People were bored I here was ,1 terrible heat wave 
People were dying Old 1. idles were out shooting 

their pistols .it target practice. There was .1 Dallas 
c owboys football game and fans were throwing 
whiskey bottles, breaking them in the hot streets of 
Dallas There seemed to be a feeling of outrage 
fohn Kenned) tame into that situation, and for a 
long time I thought he was killed b\ the weather — 
the weather killed him because everyone was so 
aggravated at that time. [Laughs.] 

Later. I returned to Dallas and visited an amuse- 
ment park billed Six Flags Over rexas. I saw a B-36 
bomber sitting there, resting quietly, obsolete. 

The bomber was just a decoration? 

JR: Yeah And I savs imitation nature being put forth 
to children for amusement rhere were ceiling fans 
mounted in trees outside to give people a breeze. 
There was .1 poor live parrot 111 a cage m a simulat- 
ed cowboy-western 1890s town rhere .1 loud- 
speaker m the cage, saying, "Hi, I'm Polly the parrot 
Who are you. little girl?" And I remember this poor 
parrot being tortured by this loudspeaker I hey also 
had a riverboat in a fake ditch the) had dug, with 

some big gear propelling the boat around, and I 
dreamed that this was some unseen pilot propelling 
our economy. At that time. General Motors was the 
highest-paid contractor for the Vietnam War I here 

were |iist a lot of cra/\. ridiculous things going oil. I 
felt that all the obsolete airplanes— all the boinbcts 

built for defense but never used -were responsible 
tor allowing people to live a certain lifestyle, to have 
three and a halt . hildren and two and .1 hall i ars and 

.1 house in tin- suburbs 

Anyway, there were\ reason-, for doing the 
/-/// painting I p. tinted it in iu\ Studio it 42'' 

Broome Street 1 had man) visitors there from 

Christo t<> I co |t astelli], lleana [Sonnabend], Bob 

K.iusJienberg, Steve Pax ton. Alan Solomon 

[Michelangelo] Pistoletto, Virginia I )wan, I >ii k 

Smith, i lot ot others Richard [eigen brought 

down movie people. Anyhow, the whole painting 
was taken eventually as a anti-wai paii 
\nd largely the criticism ot picture 

RR Wasn't this the first picture of yours that 
produced the virtual reality of a completely 
artificial, wraparound environment, like what 
surrounds us now in the mural you're doing 
for Berlin? 1 mean, a completely synthetic 
world, where you can't find a beginning, a 
middle, or an end — a continuous, 360-degree 

JR: It like a wr.ip.iround fol the esc I used fluo- 
rescent, I >a\ -( llo i olors I used jukebox paint on pan 
of it. The idea to look .it something in the paint- 
ing and s.i\." that .uliit is that color because ot this 
color coming m here 

What I didn't control is the door or the ceiling. 
Later on. m 1970 I did a wraparound coloi paii I 
with dr\ icc fog to eliminate the flooi [Horizon 
Honn Sweet Home] Hone Blinders [1968 69] was also 

a wraparound painting ( arlo IKtkert. win. worked 

with Pontus Hulten ai the Moderna Museet in 
Stockholm, said to me, "We always hang., hard 

painting on the right when you walk in the room 
And we ilv, Lys hang i sofi painting on the left 
because, as you know, the left is always softer." I 
thought, that*s funny What's softer; W hat area is 
softer than the other? So I thought, instead of going 
left or right, win not go straight ahead? And the 
result was Horse Blind n 

So how many wraparound paintings are 
there altogether? 

JR: Three 

RR: F-lll, Horse Blinders . . . 

JR: And Horizon Home Swet I Honn 

RR: Oh, yes. 

JR: With the I 

So that had dry-ice fog coming up from 
the floor. 

JR: 1 also thought of doing .1 hydrogen fog on the 
ceiling, but I don't like technology that much ["hat's 
wh) I like painting, because it's an illusion. Sculpture 
is fast inating diffii ult, exti lordinary But 1 haven't 
done much of it -except Fumbleweed [1963-66] a 
chrome-plated barbed-wire sculpture — because 1 
like the idea of illusionism, and hov* difficult it is to 
s.i\ something on .1 surface that's only a sixteenth 

11 inch thick. You turn it sideways and it looks 
like nothing, but you turn it full face and it looks 
like something 

RR: It goes with your interest in virtual reality. 
It's all an illusion that looks real. 

JR: Well, I don't have much of an interest in virtual 
re ility. 

Something might look like real metal, real 
shine, real plastic, but it's just paint. 

JR: It's just paint. I saw .1 Miro shov, at Pierre 
Matisse [Gallery] in the 1950s, and 1 walked into the 
room and 1 was just taken aback by these paintings 

1 e I didn't know how (hex were done All 
there was wis .1 vision He took a rag and smeared 

the ■ "lo, on with a piece of silk, in very large, soft 

disks that looked like they'd been airbrushed. and 
then he connected those disks with hues, little 
touches of color, very very beautifully done not 
meeha1ne.1l. With Chinese bristle brushes. No air- 
brushes There was this amazing look ot" those Miro 
paintings from across the room, and then 1 dis^n 
ered that it was only paint You know, that's what I 


I wanted to ask you how you conceived 
this mural. For one thing, I'm sitting here 
looking at quotations from [Picasso's] 
Guernica in it, wondering whether you've ever 
used quotations from other works of art in 
your paintings before. I'm also looking at 
quotations from your own earlier works of art, 
like your recycling of passages from F-lll 
and Industrial Cottage [1977]. So I'm curious 
about the mood of this picture. Here we are in 
the late 1990s, and throughout this mural 
there is a backwards glance into the earlier 

history of twentieth-century art and twentieth- 
century wars and your own work. 1 would love 
to hear anything you have to say about this. 

JR: Well, at one point 1 thought that this painting 
was going to Bilbao 1 heard that they had wanted to 

get Guernica tor Bilbao I'd seen Guernica many times 
at the Museum of Modern Art [in New York| before 
it was returned to Spam. And so I thought I'd. start 
off with elements from the past and an abstraction 
of ( Guernica going mi" a reflection that goes into a 
meteor with .\\) insignia on it. The idea or the mete- 
or with the insignia is that during the C old War and 
throughout my own history — the history ol all of us 
for a number of decades— we kept taking the danger 
of nuclear holocaust out from under the pillow. 
examining it, and then putting it away And then one 
day a few years a^k the Russians just pointed all 
their missiles in another direction And no one m 
America celebrated I would have thought that peo- 
ple would have been like they were at the end ot 
W.uld War II. w lieu my uncles went out and shot 
off their shotguns 

RR : Global joy. 

JR: rhat global joy — never heard about it It never 
happened So then by chance, according to the 

media — we Started having tons of natural disasters 1 

mean, we had earthquakes, fires, floods, every kind 

a( thin- you i an imagine 
Divine punishment. 

JR: I don't know what it was And then I thought 

about the idea oi Star Wars n\d sneaking all these 

war weapons up into space, which we're doing now. 
and how no one knows ..bout it No one knows the 
real fa< ts about what our government is doing. And 
then we're racing toward the millennium In other 
words, the twentieth century has been a horrible 
century My father, born in 1908, sav, the rise ol the 
automobile, the airplane He sav, .ill these things 
We've had these horrible wars— World War I. World 
War II A bunch ol my relatives were in there One 
got killed rhere's been .ill this In. ruble stuff. So the 
century's been very dynamic, but the dynamic has 
been ver\ harsh and painful And so you think, Wow, 
my gosh, I hope we get that over with What we've 
gotten over with in that at one point two major 
powers, Russia and the United States, stopped aim- 
ing at each othei But then you've got these sneak) 
terrorists coming ..round, and they have completely 
different ethics. They're completer) different kinds 
of people But you still have optimism With v.. un- 
people, you have optimism I'm still optimistic, but 
this painting, like /-///. is a diary of the terrible 

temper of the tunes 1 he end of the\-toot 

[twenty -seven-and-a-half-meter] painting looks 
more optimistic, but the forty-eight-foot [fourteen- 
and-a-half-meter] painting chat was shown in Bilbao 
looks tumultuous 

RR: I'm curious about this "Apocalypse Now" 
mood. One of the things that's so striking 
about this mural is the image of the vortex. 
I'm trying to remember, and you'll have to 
help me, when you've used it before. 

JR: I never have 

RR: That's what I thought. It looks totally new 

to me, and it's a whole new kind of velocity. 
I remember earlier works like Star Thief 
[1980], and how they had kind of a superson- 
ic streak across them. But that's energy that's 
going somewhere, and these are like black 
holes or drains. I'm interested in this image, 
this whirlpool movement of galactic speed. 
But you tell me about it. 

JR: Well, it's a totally optical space Its a nev\ device 
for me. really Its like an exclamation that shows 
change Now. this image right here [points], there's 
going to be some fluorescent spots on it dots 
that stuk out in front It will look like it's m VI ) 
when I get through V\ ith it. 

I hate to show paintings when they're no. tin 
ished, because you can only spei ulate on what the 
'•snap'' is going to be But you're seeing things now 
,.. the) unfold When tins all goes together, you'll 

w ilk in the trout dooi of the museum .ml tins 
ninety-foot painting should propel itself down to 
one end of the room ind to the other, ami then 

..round the room. 

I Ik priority for me is visual invention and, real 
ly, content is secondary but then the content is what 
grounds the picture. It pulls itself in place and in 
time, you know -whatever it is, even if it's banal 

RR: It's true. So far, what hits me so forcefully 
about this new work is the difference from 
your earlier work— namely, it's got all these 
dynamos. You feel as though you're going to 
be flung into some kind of spinning engine or 
to the end of the world. There are all these 
black holes. And it has a furious kind of pro- 
pulsion that is very unlike the movement in 

what you've done before. But that is what's so 
startlingly fresh about it. 

Then I'm also wondering about the images, 
some of which are new and some of which are 
old. You started working on this piece expect- 
ing it to go to Bilbao, but in the end it's being 
done for Berlin. So how much does the 
German context figure in your choice of 
images here? 

JR: Well, the window image represents the (.M.u in 
flag ,, a sunrise over the Ruin Valley I he -lull bus 
represent heavy industry I he * ' ' """ advertising 
cost that makes people pis four dollars a bos foi ten 
, . ,,,, worth ol breakfast cereal brings to mind the 
differences between I asi and West Bi rlin when the 
wall was up and hou drab I asi Berlin was and hovs 
vital the West ll also brings to nun, I the question ol 
advertising Young Polish peoplt tell an We knov, 
ibout youi Coca-( ola and M< Donald's, but you 

must come and tell US what it re. .lb means" I'm ii I 
loss for an answer I VC seen and painted ii .11 m\ 

hte I guess I rejei ted the banality and greed invoh 
ed in advertising but I've teen it bun.' color into 
oui lives 

I wail t to go on and say that in 1 - ' " the littli 
girl undei the hairdryer v\ is i metaphoi foi the pilot 

and the economy that produced the obsolete I bei 

\,,d ,,ow I'm using th« hairdryei igain It's a fo< ii 
p,,int ,,i the end w ,11 But here, thirty years lam the 
girl h.s become the widov, who runs the world 

be, w heireSS on Wall Street She holds 

the power and the control ol the world economy 
l had i man's imagi hi r« It was just i hairdo and 
his bra, ns were spaghetti thai - m earl) I ranco 
\meri. in spaghetti imag< I"" I took that out 

There's ilso a woman there whose face is slivered 
into .1 i oiled spring. 

That spring is great because it's just like 
a five-and-dime-store version of all of those 
whirling drains, the same spiraling image. 

JR: Its like a dynamo springing out 

This should be your crowning achievement 
of the twentieth century. It's now three decades- 
plus after your beginning. Being an art histori- 
an, I'm looking sideways to works of other 
artists of your generation, and wondering how 
they might plug into this. You, in particular, 
I know, have always been very generous about 
looking at, responding positively to, the work 
of your peers and your juniors and seniors. 
But one of the things I've noticed in a lot of 
work of your generation — I'm thinking about 
artists like Johns and Rauschenberg and 
Lichtenstein — is that in their work of the last 
decade or so, they more and more frequently 
used quotations from their own earlier work, 
whether as fragments or as a whole. And this 
is something that I'm aware of in this work, 
too. I mean, it's a mood of summary, of 
anthology, of Proustian recall. Do you think 
of it as a kind of summa of everything you've 
done, and do you want to look back, quote, 
see your work through the layers of time? 

JR: It's not really a summation. It's more like usmg 

the past .is a springboard to new imagery, or .1 new 
kind ot imagery. Something that people tan recog- 

nize from the past. 

What's so exciting is that this looks like 
a springboard for a whole new language. I 
mean, what would strike any viewer first is the 
momen-tum here. It has this insane, young 
energy. It's like an earthquake, a volcano, you 
name it. It has more speed, more force than 
anything I've ever seen of yours before. You 
know, it's like being inside a laundromat. 

JR: Exactl) That's what I want. [Laughs.] You hit it! 

Well, we might say a cosmic laundromat. 
I mean, you're in a spin-dry cycle from begin- 
ning to end. 

JR: I hat's right. And that is because of. I think, the 
tumult of our economy over the last tew years Up 
A\)d down, up and down, up and down, and the 
whole world is going into a tumult because ot the 

nuclear roles coming down COO. 1 here's a lot of 
optimism, but there's pessimism, too It's been very, 
\er\ vigorous. 

RR: I wanted to ask you about the title of this 
suite of pictures: The Swimmer in the Econo- 
mist. I mean, I know you love puns in your 
images, like the hairdryer equalling an air- 
plane's nose cone, or fingernails equalling pen 
points. But tell me about u the Econo-mist," 
which is a verbal pun. Tell me about the title. 

JR: Well, the swimmer . . . apparently, there's an old 
Venetian saying, "The artist swims in the water, the 
critic stands ashore." So the swimmer is the active 
party And the economy is a dream. It describes 
being immersed in a tumult 

Hopefully, this is going in the right direction It's 
always been hard to (ell You know I thought 1 was 
an old socialist for a long time, because I thought 
about the inequalities between people, and what you 
tan d^ about all ofthat I don't consider myself a 

humanitarian, but I think about waste and unhappy 
billionaires [laughs] and people who are happy, and 

about the da\s in the sixties when kids m the com- 
munes could bu\ a truckload ofgranola at the teed 
store for the rest of their lives for a hundred biitks. 
and wear arm\ -surplus clothes and raise tons of kids 

and have a life living on nothing. You have children. 
I have children We all hope that the race continues 

Another thing I was going to call this painting 
was The Ract 

RR: Race? 

JR: The Race 

RR: As in the human race? Or as in the run- 
ning race? 

JR: Everything All of it 1 ike Thelonious Monk 

said. "All ways, always " 

RR: Well, I can see the energy of it. I mean, 
just the sheer miles-per-hour moving from one 
end to the other is right up there with cosmic 

JR: It's race, it's speed It's racial, its promoting the 
rate regardless of what the rate is, staying alive. I hat's 
win The Race was a title A lot of times I haw ten 

titles, and then it boils down to one. or none 


RR: You know, something else I noticed about 
this new work has to do with the way you've 
always switched back and forth between, on 
the one hand, grisaille painting that looks like 
black-and-white photographs, and, on the 
other hand, color that looks synthetic, a la 
plastics and TV. But that kind of back-and- 
forth between color and noncolor seems to be 
much more intense, much more polarized here 
than I've ever seen it, and that also contrib- 
utes to the "race," the rush of it, moving from 
memories of Guernica and its recall of black- 
and-white newspaper photos, into the newer 
media of these crazy, incandescent, California 
candy colors. I have never seen such an excit- 
ing contrast in your work. It really has a 
momentum here it has never had before. 

JR: Well, studying color is like playing the piano. 
One needs practice I "hat color right there on the 
painting [points] is onl) about three colors mixed 
up in the right quantity. 

But this color, even for you, is a new kind 
of artificial. It's got every color in a plastic 
rainbow, and just in terms of clash, it has the 
kind of energy that all those spinning drains 
have. You were talking about painting as illu- 
sion, and I'm fascinated by the part of this 
mural where an airplane disappears and re- 
emerges as if . . . well, in the way I see it, 
as if the canvas were being unfurled or furled 
before your eyes. So that the painting is 
almost being wrapped up while you see it. And 
that gives it a whole kind of snap, crackle, 
and pop it wouldn't have otherwise. It makes 

your earlier pictures look absolutely flat. This 
has an unstable, sweeping energy that rushes 
through the whole panoramic spread. 

JR: Well, you know, there are memories 
foi i lot of things Tins is an aside, but Richard 
Feigen has tins beautiful Turner painting in lus din- 
ing room It's called Tin Reconstruction of tlu Temple 
Wa\ in the background, there's .1 temple, and then 
there's this incline at the bottom of the painting, and 
these people are dancing and playing the flute ind 
frolicking, but they're going downhill 1 ike life is 
fun and everything, but you're still going down. 

It's like this slope in your painting, like 
something that's sneaking along on the 
ground. It's got the quality of an undertow. 

And now, a totally different question. I 
remember the last time 1 saw this here, it was 
in a different state and I was, as usual, trying 
to think of how it relates to other works of art 
from the 90s or the 80s. And one of the things 
that occurred to me is that the only other 
place I've seen this kind of wild, almost incom- 
prehensible cosmic space is in some of the 
recent paintings of Frank Stella. They look 
like computer explosions, but they are in fact 
totally controlled and corseted like yours. Do 
you have any connections with that? 

JR: The cosmic explosion . . . 

rr : Well, it's a kind of spatial abstraction 
that's very new in the late twentieth century. 
It looks like cyberspace, and it's something 
that implies infinite extension and total incom- 

prehensibility. It just doesn't fit into any pre- 
dictable spatial patterns, and it feels as if 
you're being sucked into a galaxy. Stella is 
the only thing that I've seen in terms of 
abstract painting that I can connect visually 
with what you're doing. I don't know if this is 
just an accident . . . 

JR: I hke Frank's work a lot, and I've watched him 
since he started At first, it was hke h< vi is putting 
building blocks togethei and then ii got mon and 
,,„,, more and more sophistii ited until 

all of a sudden, you Can'l tell where it starts and 
where it ends It's brilliant. 1 mean, I think Ins plas 

ticitj is incredible It's great Bui foi me, painting 
means making some reference to one's time 

RR: You've been around for some decades and 
we're approaching the millennium and, not to 
sound too poetic about it, this mural is like a 
time capsule of twentieth-century history. It's 
got the epic momentum of the past, and it also 
has some sense of bursting through a sound 
barrier into the future. But, above all, it's got 
the panoramic sweep that sums up our planet, 
the cosmos, and whatever you can buy in the 
five-and-dime store. It goes from heaven to 
hell and from the particular to the universal. 
Something like from here to eternity. 

JR: \Vr\ kind But I'mjUSt m the middle ol it, and 

this end walls going to be a sur] 

Aripeka, I lorida 
D. embei 6, 1997 



''There's an old 

Venetian saying, 

x The artist swims in 

the water, the critic 

stands ashore/ 

So the swimmer is the 

active party. 

And the economy 

is a dream. 

It describes being 


in a tumult. " 

/ I The Swimmer in the Econo-mist 
(painting 1), 1997-98 
Oil on canvas 

3.50 x 6.10 m, 4.02 x 6.10 m at center 
Oeutsche Guggenheim Berlin 

2 | The Swimmer in the Econo-mist 
(painting 2), 1997 
Oil on canvas 
3.50 x 11.60 m 
Deutsche Guggenheim Berlin 

i The Swlmmet m Ui - 

:. 6f >lm 



for me. It's like an excla 




I. From nmc to five, tor the last year, James Rosenquist has been working on .1 suite oi thi 
mural paintings, The Swimmei m the Econo-mist, commissioned tor Deutsche Guggenheim 
Berlin. He's been on a tight schedule, painting against a deadline that is drawing near In a 
month, the pictures must be installed, and they are almost finished. Only a fevi areas uni. mi to 
be painted. Roscnquist has just returned from the local art store, where he's been looking for 
the colors that he needs tor his final touches, or what he likes to call "hot Inks." He plans to 
add color accents — an acrid yellow, a glaring orange. These Day-Glo tones comprise a palette of 
jangling, vulgar tints. They are the colors of roadside signs advertise take out barbecues and 
X-rated entertainment. They are crass colors that defy ^,ood taste and give The Swimmei in the 
Econo-mist its essential edge and disequilibrium. 

Standing 111 front of one of the paintings. Rosenquist studies it. Although lie works 
from maquettes and preparatory drawings, he spends large stretches of tune looking it paintings 
in progress. Usually he sits and stares. Sometimes he paces back and forth along the length >>! 
the large studio. Often he studies his paintings at the end ot the day, when the natural light 
grows dim, because color values subside and mistakes are easy to read. He is not aV( rsi to 
change. If he thmks it is necessary, he will disregard plans and compositions and start over. In 
the course of completing The Swimmer in the Econo-mist, lie has made various alterations. At one- 
point, he decided the paintings were about the future, not the past, and removed images that he 
regarded as too reminiscent of earlier work: a man's head, swirling hair, a field ot spaghetti. 

Rosenquist has just finished painting the large orange oval that divides the twenty- 
seven-and-a-half-meter panel, and while he waits for the paint t<> dry, I ask him about that 
shape, which recalls a similar one in the l°7<) painting Flamingo Capsule (fig. 4) His answer is 
fast and short: '"It's a reflection from a blast furnace." he savs. then, changing the subjei t, 
explains the procedures used to create the image. He describes how he had t<> mask out the 
entire area around it before he began to paint and why he used a Spra) gun (be. ause the 
method rendered a smooth mu\ even surface) Rosenquist jealousl) guards the meaning of his 
paintings, but willingly explains their elaborate procedures 

Countless small decisions are crucial to Rosenquist's art At first glance, his paintings 
seem to be an arbitrary melange of dissonant contrasts and yokingS. But they are not arbitrary 
at all. Every aspect is carefully considered. Fairings are strange and hard to comprehend, but the 
couplings are never accidental or casual. Visual narratives meander and ramble aimlessly, but 

lamei Rosen': irom 

in Corporatioi 
1 above ihi a itoi rheatei >'' Broad 


FXosenquist means what he says, and he is almost always savin- something. When he contrasts , 

I, ,IK , reared surface with a swirl of hand-applied paint, or juxtaposes monochromatic 

grays with bright and dissonant hues, or tills a window with the colors of the German flag, or 
restates Picasso's Guernica (fig 8), he is not acting arbitrarily. These are the elements and images 
from which he constructs his art. 

The Swimmei in the Econo-mist utilizes all the devices and visual conventions we have 
come to expect from Rosenqmst: the disruptions and disconnections; the barrage of imagery; 
the unlikely mergings; the contradictions; the blatant non sequiturs; the strident colors; and, of 
course, the scale. The Swimmer in the Econo-mist is the largest suite of paintings he has produced 
to date. Consisting of three separate pictures, m twenty-one sections, it measures three-and-a- 
half meters high and more than forty-eight meters long. Designed to cover three walls inside 
Deutsche Guggenheim Berlin's gallery, the paintings are mammoth and their towering images 
envelop their viewers. 

Rosenc|iiist is ., master of big pictures. He is well-versed in scale and a connoisseur of size. He 
is also accustomed to working on assignment. When he was voting, he painted black-and- 
orange emblems for Phillips 66 gasoline on signs and bams across the flatlands of his native 
Midwest. He was a natural. He could draw anything to specification. He could scale up or scale 
down, In 1954, he worked for General Outdoor Advertising, painting billboards around 
Minneapolis. He painted immense parrots, enormous whiskey bottles, and letters that rose 
three meters high. In 1955, he moved to New York, having received a scholarship to the 
Art Students I eague. After a year, when his money ran out. he found a job painting signs. He 
joined I OCal 230 of the Sign. Pictorial, and Display Union. He was the union's youngest mem- 
ber, but he became their star artist as his skill increased and his repertoire expanded A newspa- 
per reporter referred to him as a "billboard Michelangelo " 

He spent two years at dizzying heights, balancing atop bridges and standing on scat- 
folds above Times Square, painting movie stars' smiles, mammoth lips, toothpaste grins, a gigan- 
tic dimple m Kirk Douglas's chin. He learned a lot on the boards. Painting fragments taught 
him about collage. Working on a large scale afforded him lessons m abstraction, close-up vis, on. 
and the effects of size. He learned about mixing paint, too: how to make it silkv and so thick 
and smooth that it flowed like cream. He absorbed a syntax of commercial 

alphabet of advertising colors, like suntan brown and lipstick red. The trade secrets he learned 
influenced him and eventually transformed his art. He stopped making the small, gray ab$tra< I 
pictures that he painted in the evening after work. Instead, he found his subject matter in the 
detritus of consumer culture and the remnants of everyday images He treated a new. idiosyn 
cratic visual language. 

Gaudy, strident, blunt, ordinary, and strangely mute. Rosenquist's new language was 
steeped in the American vernacular. It consisted of fragments taken from printed advertise 
ments — pieces of angel food cake, bottle tops, spaghetti, razor blades, tire treads, and the grilles 
and windows of old cars. Although the images are naggmgK familiar, Rosenquist's pictures 
stubbornly resist interpretation. Their meanings are fugitive. Like poems built with dense in. i a 
phors, they are hard to parse. This was what Rosenqnist intended He wanted Ins art CO he cool 
and detached. Hoping to avoid the emotional angst that weighed down Abstract Expressionist 
painting, he chose objects garnered from a commercial netherland — dumb, malleable, anon) 
mous images that he once described in conversation as "old enough to pass without notii e. but 
not old enough to trigger nostalgia " 

Rosenquist has often said that he intended to make pictures, not statements. Sounding 
like a strict modernist, he has maintained that the space deputed In m image is more impOl 
tant than the image itself and that he is not interested in objects, but in then abstract proper- 
ties. He employed numerous devices to deflect meaning. Odd couplings defy logic non 
sequiturs, like a field of orange spaghetti, disrupt narratives; realistic images, rendered < lose-up, 
become abstractions. Even his colors — the pigments of printed reproductions — have an artiti. ial 
aura, .\n anemic cast that creates distance. 

Despite Rosenquist's emphasis on formal properties and visual invention, his paintings 
never lack content. From the start, they addressed big themes, like love and war and sex and 
liberty. Hey 1 Let's Co foi a Ride (1961), whatever else it may concern, is about sedu< tion, as is 
Waves (1962), albeit from another perspective. A Lot to Like (1962) and Silver Skies (1962; fig. 2) 
are reflections on superabundance— on an overcrowded visual field, on the plethora .»» products 
that inundate American consumers. And the paintings- punning titles are rife with hidden mean- 
ings and opinions. A Lot to Like suggests that there is, in fact, too much to like. No matter hovi 
mute the paintings seem, they are informed by conviction— even, at tunes, fanned by nnl, 
tion.They convey impressions and opinions about everything from advertising and assassii 

Silver Skies, 196? 
Oil on canvas 
1.98 x 5.04 m 
The Chrysler Museum of An 
Gift Of Walter P. Chry,lrr. Jr 


Fill, 1961 65 
Oil on canvas with aluminum 
3.05 x 26.21 m 
The Museum of Modern Art, 
New York, Pm 

nous to beauty, sex, and matrimony. Fraught with feeling, they are nonverbal, visual poems that 
resolutely resist words 

II. In the fall of 1964, an election year, Rosenquist began the large painting that became F- 1 1 1 
(1964-65; fig. 3), Ins first site-specific work. A transitional picture. F- / / / marked the end of 
Rosenquist's early, straightforward collage compositions and the beginning of his exploration of 
peripheral vision and big pictures. As with many of his major paintings, F-llfs conception and 
execution coincided with significant changes in his life. For the two preceding years, 
Rosenquist had been painting nonstop. His work had been featured in the Museum of Modem 
Art's . [mericam 1963 and in two major Pop art exhibitions: New Realists (at Sidney Jams gallery) 
and Six Painters and the Object (at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum). He'd also executed a 
commission for the 1964 World's Fair and completed enough pictures to fill solo shows in 
Pans, Los Angeles, and New York. He'd had to work hard to sustain his level of production, for, 
nnhke his Pop colleagues, Rosenquist did not employ reproductive techniques or pamt in 
series. Whereas Andy Warhol screenprinted his portraits of Marilyn Monroe, modifying their 
I olor and size, and Jim Dine varied his images of bathrobes and hearts by filling them with 
landscapes and a rainbow of colors, Rosenquist never repeated his compositions exactly or 
restated them by changing their color, size, or background. He was always starting over. Every 
painting was different. 

His style, however, remained consistent. He utilized the same visual inventions and kept 
refining his technique and extending his vision. He moved from simple couplings to allover 
i onfigurations. I le was continually finding new ways to combine and transmute provocative 
fragments into arresting, mysterious compositions. He was working all the time, and by the tall 
of 1^)4, he was tired and ready tor a change. He'd been experimenting with sculpture and pieces and had started attaching objects to his canvases, He had reached a turn- 
ing point in his life .is well .is his art. He was about to lease a new studio, and he'd changed 
dealers: after the Green Gallery closed, he'd joined the Leo Castelli Gallery, where his first show scheduled to open on April 17, 1965. 

Regarded .is Pop art's epicenter, the small Castelli gallery presented big shows, and 
Rosenquist wanted his first show there to have an impact. He intended to fill the entire gallery, 
to make the biggest panning he could, and he spent a year preparing for the exhibition. He 


needed to End a subject he felt passionate ..bout. .1 theme miport.nii enough to sustain the pi( 
ture he intended to paint. Everything he saw, heard, or thought about influenced him; a trip to 
Dallas just before the Kennedy assassination; .. silver fighter bomber sitting on an airfield; a pat 
„„ talking at an amusement park. Kile chatter; taxes; conversations with a newspapei report. 1 

who had been to Vietnam. Rosenquist painted l-lll in the middle 1 America mosl 

violent decades. It was also a political tune Lyndon Johnson was running for president. The 
Civil Rights Act and legislation on a sweeping program for economk and social welfare had 
passed. The Vietnam War had begun to escalate Rosenquist took it all in and reflected the tui 
moil of the times in /-///.the large mural painting that would ie to be regarded as the 

apotheosis of Pop art. 

Once he had finished making preparatory drawings tor the painting, he had stretchers 
built and for the next eight months he worked on the picture. He was obsessed I )a, and mght, 
all be talked or thought about was F- / / (. His studio w. mall that he had ,0 sec- 
do^ ,„ fa ct, be did not see F- / 11m its entirety until mid-April 1965, when be installed the 
irregular fragments around the walls ofCastelli Gallery's Hon, room The painting we sl.ghtly 
more than twenty-six meters wide and fit perfectly 

F-m surround cues, h inundates them with nois, colors tha. merge and over 

lap with bright surfaces, reflective panels, and a string of unrelated images Impossible to take 

in tll , painting P ul,s at the edges of vision. No matter .as looks, there ,s too much 

» see. The nose and fuselage of an Mil j* cover and connect the panels , ut wha Hhe 
enlarged images that interrupt the bod, of the plane; Ho, do eggs, light bulbs, a tin, st- 
and an undeLter swimmer relate to a ft g beach umbrella, s. paghetc, and the grin- 
ning young girl (the plane's pflot) under me phallic ha.r drye, 

8 p." ,s a politic, painting, a picture about war. taxes, and e surplus , , n- 

sumer culture „s subject , « machine, a fighter jet, paid for b, ttxpayers then n d vdop- 

views explaining the pictures intent. Initially, tie ■ 

*eir taxes. But F-M1 « an e .„.,, waU , . v ^^ ( 

- P^aUy fe»,T0 see it, viewer ^g^^Z**** >— ^ ' " 

cue point of view, but must be comprehended incremei 

1 / Flamingo Capsule 

Oil on canvas with two alun 

,ide paneli 
Central pan. I '"■ 

side pa 91 m each 

hao Muieoa 


/ ,,. F| Detail o( Horse Blinders, 1968-69 
Oil on canvas and aluminum 
3.05 x 25.76 m 
Museum Ludwig, Cologne 

Star Thief, 1980 
Oil on canvas 
5 21 x 14.02 m 
Museum Ludwig, Cologne 

effect is cumulative. And finally, viewers discover that this fiercely antiwar picture is as much 
about vision .is it is about war. 

With F- / / /. Rosenquist had found a new canvas — the Castelli Gallery's front room— 
and for the next five years, he produced site-specific paintings like Area Code and Flamingo 
Capsule (both 1970) that exactly fit the gallery's walls. The most ambitious painting of the peri- 
od was Horse Blinders (1968-69; fig. 5), which, like F-1H, envelops viewers as it examines the 
nature of peripheral vision. Rosenquist began Horse Blinders during another election year. It was 
a particularly brutal year, during which Martin Luther King. Jr.. and Robert F. Kennedy were 
assassinated and Andv Warhol was shot. Its subject is the visual noise of consumer culture, and 
how we sec or don't see. As m /- / / /, a jumble of disparate images besieges viewers. The assault 
is intense, foi in each of the picture's corners, polished aluminum panels not only carry but 
relic, i images, heightening and multiplying the clamorous visual effects. The image of severed 
wires suggests that communication is impossible, and the title implies that horse blinders are 
needed to eliminate the incessant onslaught of random and raucous information. 

L980 was another election year. Ronald Reagan became president. The Iran hostage 
crisis was under way. The American economy was weak and an era of government deregulation 
and supply-side economics was about to begin. Rosenquist had started to think about painting 
another big picture He was looking for a new challenge, to do something he hadn't done 
before. He thought it would be interesting to step outside the gallery system, to create a picture 
that was too large to be exhibited m a commercial gallery or sold to a private collector, a 
painting that was neither site-Specific nor commissioned. 

For a good part of a year, Rosenquist worked on Stai Thief (1980; fig. 6). The largest 
painting he had made up to that time. Stai Thief features a strange amalgam of visual frag- 
ments— Strips of flying bacon, a starry skv; a skyscraper; a woman's head, split open to expose a 
gnarled mass of colored wires The imagery is dense and recondite. The smoothly painted sur- 
fa< e seems to seal meaning m. But old themes slowly become apparent. Rosenquist's ongoing 
exploration of vision and space continues, space-age technology threatens nature and beauty. 
Unlike F- / / /, however, the vast space of Star Thief does not surround viewers, but confronts 
and engulfs them, stretching up and out. as far as the eye can see 

When he finished the picture, Rosenquist invited his longtime dealer Leo Castelli to 
see it. After looking at the painting, Castelli asked Rosenquist to accompany him to an address 


on Greene Street, where he said he had something important to show him. When the) arrived 
Castelli opened the door to a ground-floor space, entered, and waved h.s arm ..round the larg. 
room, motioning toward a big wall.This was Castelli's new gallery, and to Rosenquist's amaze 
ment StarThief fit. The height of Greene Street's ceiling was approximately five-and-a-hall 
meters StarThiefis around thirty centimeters smaller. StarThief™ never mean! to be I site- 
specific picture, but the gargantuan paintings that followed it, like 4 New-Cle* Women (1982) 
were. For the next few years, the walls of the Greene Street gallery became EWiquist's nev. 
and largest canvas. 

Ill Given the years Rosenquist spent painting billboards and his abiding .uteres, in site sp« , ill 

paintings, it seems odd that he turns down most commissions. He accepts only those that 

est him, and in a career spanning more than four decades, they number approximate!, a d, 
b, 1976 he created murals for the Florida State Capitol at Tallahassee because he lues m 

Florida part-time and thinks of himself as a Floridian. And he has always a, , epted , 

from architect Philip Johnson because of the rapport he feels for the man and hts wor m 
,964 he produced a mural for the pavilion Johnson designed for the Ne. -York World ft*. 
and ,„ l98 4, he panned Flowers, Fish, ani Fe les fo, the I v„ , (fig. 1) for the restaurant 

in the Sea-rams building in New York. 

There are pragmatic aspects to every commission-expectattons to be met, tons 

to be fulfilled. Commissions must communicate id. I emblems; they must please and 

.morn, l^scnmust's Tallahassee murals feature images assorted W«h h S * . of 1 nda 

including sheUfish, palm trees, and boy, Bowers, Fish, mi Fe ^ **£££' 

Amorous stil) lift befitting of a grand and expe d 6 n I he p.ctu* « I • 

brimming over with su «-^«""~^^£i" 

faces sliced into splinters. Rosen A research for , usstons tends > ' ; 

mentary. For the Florid als, he read the state's h^ £. ^ J^« 

collected seed catalogues and studied pictures of flowers. He also I 

local fish store, where he photographed dead Gsh. 

,i,.c,,...enheun Museum's director, met with Rosenquist 
In November 1996,Thomas Krens.the Guggenneim 

1 /■/<■ .'2 

Pijj 7 | Flowers, Fish, and Females 
for the Four Seasons, 1984 

2.30 x 7.29 m 

The Metropolt 

Gift of torn Ma ■»'• K° w, i 

1995 199*a i 

/ ig s | Pablo Picasso 
Guernica, 1937 
Oil on canvas 3.51 x 7.82 m 
Museo Nacional Centro de Arte 
Reina Sofia, Madrid 

/ \g 9 | Industrial Cottage, 1977 

Oil on canvas 

2.03 x 4.62 m 

Private collection, Courtesy of 

Richard L. Feigen &. Co 

/ - / / / mural, but nothing was resolved at the meeting as the location of the commission had 
not /el been determined. In principle, the concept interested Roscnqinst. When Krens 
mini nied him .i few months later the commission was set for the new Guggenheim in the 
former East Berlin. R^osenquist was pleased. 

As always, Rosenquist's experiences informed his new painting. He thought about 
German friends he had and German journeys he'd taken. He recalled a trip to East Berlin not 
long after the wall came down. He remembered seem- remnants of red stars on a wall, smelling 
disinfectant, and visiting places that looked devastated and bombed out, but he also recalled the 
emerging energy he'd seen and felt. He read up on German cities, on Berlin from the 1920s to 
the 1940s. He also re. id about Germany as a world power, about Prussian kings and German 
statesmen from Frederick II to Otto von Bismarck, and about the World Wars. 

He decided to create paintings that would reflect the new Germany and the Berlin of 
tod. iv. not the divided city of the past. He thought about F- 1 1 1 too. and how his quintessential- 
lv Pop picture had come to represent not just an art movement but the atmosphere ot its time 
It had been more than thirty years since he painted F- / / / and the picture still looked fresh. He 
wanted no less for The Swimmer in the Econo-mist. 

The Swimmei in the Econo-mist tells a tale about the future. It is a familiar story, one Rosenquist 
has told before, about politics and e< onomics, war and commerce — only the setting is new. It 
takes place in Germany, after the fall of Communism. It is a post-Cold War story. As usual, the 
narrative is askew. There is no linear structure in The Swimmer in the Econo-mist, no sequential 
order to the heap of broken images Viewers are bombarded with a tumult of numbing things. 
The eye swims, stops and starts, going from close-up to long shot, from griss.ulle to technicolor, 
attempting to follow the action, to make sense where there is none to be made. The connec- 
tions are implausible: what is the relation in the largest painting between an airplane, a black 
swirl, an abstraction from Picasso's Guernica, and a whirlpool of fragmented cereal boxes covered 
with words listing the cereals' nutnents : 

In .i conversation about The Swimmer /// the Econo-mist, R.osenquist mentions the mark- 
up on .i box of cereal, stating that a four-dollar box of cereal only costs ten cents to produce Is 
he referring to the money spent on advertising? Are conclusions about his suite ot product- 
packed paintings meant to be drawn? In one of the panels, enlarged letters copied from pack- 

lges oflaundry bleach gyrate out of control. The Swimme, in the Econo-mist is a parable aboul 

the effects of war on economic growth, rhe reference to Guernim in the large panel a > be 

ignored Not only is Guernica the twentieth century's best-known antiwa. mural, but Picasso 
meant the picture as a memorial to .. terrible bombing, to the destructive power of fascsm and 

the devastation of war 

The smallest panel provides the paintings" focus. It features a tableau ol retrospe. tive 
images that have been altered and updated. A window, reminiscent of one in Indmmd ( ottage 
(1 077- fig 9) but filled with the colors of the German flag, represents the and the dawn 
,,„. f a new, unified Germany. Drill bus signify the industrial growth o( the countrys Ruhr 

Vallev The lipsticks are similar to those ,n H, : of Fire (1981; fig. in,. Inn he,,- they he about, 

ben / and melti ng, like misspent bullets. And looming large is the hair dryer from F-Hf Its fo. 
mer occupant-the httle girl with the cloyingly sweet smile (see fig. ll)-.s .one. No longer 

piloting the bomber, she has grown up, she is out of the picture. In he, place there K t 

circular reflection, a familiar shape that retails the corporate symbol o. Datmler-Benz, ol 

Germany's industrial giants 

„„s„ ;,-,„„, .^isnotsomuchanupdateofF-nfasntsareflectton 

&om another time and another country. As the twentieth centur, draws to « ^J-JJ 
,„,,„ us another vision of how we live and ho, we see. As always, nature and , I , 

and war and economics continue then old alliance. Bu, the pace ,s faste, I ere , m 

everything-more products, more images, more information, and more stufl 

Fijj 10 House of Fire. 1981 
Oil on canvas 1 98 x 5 0> m 
The Metropolitan Mu 

;.tse, George A and Arthui 
| ii, .mi I unds and 
Lila Acheson Wallaci Gift 

,,, f j /lewol i mi U 

in Rov 

429 Broome Street, New York 


4 | Study for The Swimmer in the Economist 
(painting 1), 1997 

Lithographic tusche and pencil on Mylar 
51.1 x 667 cm 
Deutsche Guggenheim Berlin 

Study for The Swimmer in the Econo-mist 

(painting 1), 1997 

Lithographic tusche and colored chalk on Mylar 

50.8 x 65.4 cm 

Deutsche Guggenheim Berlin 


6 | Collage study for The Swimmer in the Econo-mist 
(painting 1), 1997 

Pastel, pencil, ballpoint pen, marker, oil, and 
collage on paper 
43.2 x 59.1 cm 
Deutsche Guggenheim Berlin 


— ■ ^j^T ff? 

01 The Swimmer in the Ecoiio-misl 
(painting 2), 1997 

Lithographic tusche and pencil on Mylar 
51.1 x 133.0 cm 
Deutsche Guggenheim Berlin 


s I Collage study for The Swimmer in the Economist 
(painting 2), 1997 
Pencil and collage on paper 
35.6 x 121.0 cm 
Deutsche Guggenheim Berlin 


9 | Study (or The Swimmer in the Economist 
(painting 3), 19". 

Lithographic tusche and pencil on Mylar 
41.3 x 116.2 cm 
Deutsche Guggenheim Berlin 




tO I Study for The Swimmer in the Econo-mist 
(painting 3), 1996-97 

Lithographic tusche and colored ink on Mylar 
40.6 x 70.5 cm 
Deutsche Guggenheim Berlin 


; / | Study for The Swimmer in the Econo-mist 
(painting 3), 1997 
Lithographic tusche on Mylar 
40.0 x 116.5 cm 
Deutsche Guggenheim Berlin 

'— -~»S~/*t 

tudy for The Swimmer in the Econo-mist 
(painting 3), 1996-97 
Lithographic tusche and pencil on Mylar 
42.2 x 92 1 cm 
Deutsche Guggenheim Berlin 


N | Study for The Swimmer in the Econo-mist 
(paintings l and 3), 1997 
Pencil on paper 
55.2 x 126.4 cm 
Deutsche Guggenheim Berlin 


i in- Swlmmei In the Econo mlsl 

Pencil, colored pen 
47.0 > I 
Deutsche Guggenheim Brrlm 

..Mage study for The Swimmer in the Economist 
(painting 3), 1996-97 

Pencil, ballpoint pen, oil, and collage on paper 
Two sections, 0.4 x 2.3 m overall 
Deutsche Guggenheim Berlin 



Compiled by Janice Yang 
Tim se< tion pn t\ ides listings ol iclei I solo and 
two person exhibitions Featuring works b) 
[ames Rosenquisl Entries include exhibition 

•i.l broi hures is well as rel ited 
irtii les ind res. iews b) dat< of publii ition 


Green Gallery, New York, James Rosenquist, 

Jan. 30-Feb. 17 

— S[wenson] Gjene] R. "Reviews and 
Previews: New Names This Month James 
Rosenquist IcwYorl no 10 

1962) p 20 
— T[illim] S[idney] 'New Yori 

Exhibitions In th« ( ialleries Jim I 

Peter S ml, James Rosenquisl In 

i 16 D" 6 
Mai 1962) pp 16 

— Robi tts, ( oh i' itions I ten 

de New York ' [ujourd'htn Pa 
Jum 1962) pp 4s 19 


Green Gallery, New York, Rosenquist, 

Apr. 15-May 11. 


Green Gallery, New York, James Rosenquist, 

Jan. 15-Feb. 8. 

— S[wen |.,G[ene] R "Reviews and 

•as James Rosenquisl ' ItMi wi 
. fori 62 no 10 I i b 1964 p 8 
— Tfillim] . S[idney] "In the Galleries 
isc nquisl " ■ Irti Magazim 

, 6 Mai 1964 

— Kozlofl I tcei 

nquisl In International (Lugano) 8, 
no I \p. 25 1964 p 62 

Galerie Ileana Sonnabend, Paris, Rosenquist, 
June. Exh. cat. with essays by Edward F. Fry 
and Jose Pierre and excerpts of previously 
published essays by Edouard Jaguer. 
— Michclson \nnettc Pai a I 
Internationa 25, 

p .,l 

Dwan Gallery, Los Angeles, James 

Rosenquist, Oct. 27-Nov. 21. 

— W[ilson] W[illiam] "Loi Vngi li |ame 
r ... i ) v , in < , aller) " irtfonim (San 
Francii I no J (Da 1964) p 12 

Galleria Gian Enzo Sperone, Turin, James 
Rosenquist, opened Nov. 5. Exh. brochure. 


Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, Rosenquist, 

Apr. 17-May 13. 

— Preston, Stuari "Art James Rosenquisl 
I h, \,u\ ii 24, 1965 i 

— L[evine]., N[cil] A "Reviews and 
Previews." irtnews (NewYork) 64 no.4 
(summei 1965) p 14 

I ippard Luq R 'New York 1 . ttei I" 
International (1 ugano) 9 no 5 I |une 1965 
pp 52—54 

( i(oldin] \[mj I ' In thi ( "is | I 

Rosenquist ' iris Magazine (New Yorl 
no l" (Sepi i p 63 

— Alfieri Bruno. "Diario cririco (II) Dopo 
,1 , ompli sso 'I inferiorii i di New York i on 

Parigi (1900 196 I il complesso di 

p ar i De I laulle 

(intanto I ondra < resi i I " Metro (Milan), 
no in (< >, i 1965), pp 4- 13 In Italian and 
l nglish trans Lui ia Krasnik 

The Jewish Museum, New York, James 
Rosenquist, F-lll, June 10-Sept. 8. 
Presented at The Jewish Museum before 
traveling to the European venues listed below. 
—"Rosenquisl •• I lll'ai |ewish 
Museum Tin Neu York rfmej.June 12, 
1965 p 2* 

Moderna Museet, Stockholm, James 
Rosenquist, F-lll, Sept. 29-0ct. 17, 1965. 
Traveled to Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 
Dec. 25, 1965-Feb. 6, 1966, Staatliche 
Kunsthalle, Baden-Baden, Feb. 12-27, 1966; 
Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna, Rome, 
Oct. 15-Nov. 10, 1966. Exh. brochure 
(Stockholm) with previously published 
interview with Rosenquist by Gene R. 
Swenson. Exh. brochure (Rome) with 
previously published interview with Rosenquist 
by Glene). R. Swenson. 


Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, James 

Rosenquist, Apr. 30-May 25. 

— W[aldman].. D[iane] "Reviews ind 
Pro ji isenquisi ' I rim ws 

, . 65 no i iummei 1966), p I 
I ippard I u< \ R "New fori I ■ ttei " 4" 
International (1 ugano) 10 no 8 (Oct 20, 


Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, 

Glueck, Grace "Art Notes Not ( >nc 

Boring Pi< ture." Tin MewYork Unit ■ 

I,,, >8 1968 se< I I p 33. 

National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, 
James Rosenquist, Jan 24-Feb 25. Exh. cat. 
in French and English with introduction by 
Brydon Smith, statement by Rosenquist, and 
excerpt of previously published essay by Ivan 

— Bergin.Jenn) "1 ad) Lets Hei Hair 
l town " /'« ' )ttam Citizen |an 24 1968, 
p 2', 
— Kritzwiser, Ka) "Ottawa Shows Pop 

nquisl ' Tin ( llobt and Mail (Toronto), 
Jan 24, 1968, p 14 

— Robillard.Yves "Rosenquist 'Je peins 
des choses inonymes 'La Pn • (Montreal), 
Jan 27 196* 

— Heywood, Irene "A Trip to Ottawa 
(ames Rosenquisl and His Power." Fin 
Cazetti | roronto),Feb 24 1968 p 44 
— Ad. mis. >ii Jerem) 'Exhibition Reviews 
(ames Rosenquisl National Galler) "i 
( anada " irlscanada roronto) 25, no I . 

nos I 16 I I" (Api I968).p 45 
— Vigeant, Andre "James Rosenquisl 
Temps-espace mouvement." I" des arts 
( no 51 (summei I9i 
pp ss 61 

Butler, (oseph I I hi rVmerii an w i) 
with \n (ames Rosenquisl Retrospective 
I In i onnoi n mi (1 ondon) 169 no I 
(Sept 1968), p.67 -Adamson, Jerem) 
"Spaghetti and Roses A 1 >o< ument ol an 
Exhibition . \rtscanada roronto 26, no I, 
issue nos 128 12" (Feb 1969) pp 8-13. 

Galerie Ileana Sonnabend, Paris, Rosenquist, 
Apr. 25-May. Exh. cat. with essay by 
Tommaso Trmi, trans. Adeline Arnaud. 

Galleria Gian Enzo Sperone, Turin, James 
Rosenquist, Nov. 5-25. 


Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, Rosenquist: 
Horse Blinders, Mar. 29-Apr. 19 

— ( anaday.John "Richard Anusrkiewica 
It's Baffling " flu Mew York Him r, \pi 5 
1969, p 2 I 

— "Art in New York: James Rosenquist." 
Urn (New York, 93. no 16 iApi 18, 
1969), se( I ,p 8 

B[aker] I [hzabeth] ( "Reviews and 
Pi v iews " Irtnews (New York) 68, no J 
(Ma) I969),pp "l _ 2 
— Allowa) Lawrence "Art." Tin Nation 
(New York) 208, no is (Ma) 5, 1969 
pp SM 82 

— Schjeldahl, Pctei "New York Lcttei 
in International (Lugano) I I no 6 
(summei 1969), p 65 

, man, I mil) "New York (ami •• 
Rosenquist." 1 rtforum (NewYork) 7, no 10 
(summi i 1969), p 65 


Castelli Graphics, New York, Rosenquist: 
Recent Lithographs 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, James 
Rosenquist, May 16-June 6. 

— Schjeldahl, Peter A trip' with 

nquisl " Tin MewYork rimes. Ma) Jl 
[970 sei 2. p. 17 

—I [inville] . K[asha] "In the Galleries: 
Rosenquisl H ( astelli " lrts Magazine 
(New York) 44. no 8 (summer 1970), p. 61 
— I'erre.iuh. John "Art: Hen ind ["here." 
//„ Village Voia (New York) 15 no 13 
June 4 [970 pp 17-18 
— Pincus-Witten, Robert New York 
|ames Rosenquist, ( astelli Galler) " 
irtfonim (New York) 9 no I (Sepi 1970), 

PP ''■ Ti 

— Rhncliff] ( [arter] "Reviews and 
Previews James Rosenquist Irlmnus 
(New York) 69 no 5 (Sepi 1970), p is 
— Baker, Kenneth "New York James 
Rosenquist < astelli I taller) irtfonim 
(NewYork) 9, no 5 (Jan 1971), p -: > 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, James 
Rosenquist: Two Large Paintings: Area Code 
and Flamingo Capsule, Oct. 24-Nov 14 
— B[aker] I (lizabeth] < "Reviews and 
Pi, views I rim w> (New York I 69, no 8 
Dei I970).p 61 

Galerie Rolf Ricke, Cologne, James 

Rosenquist, Nov. 17-Dec. 15. 

— Pfeiffer, Giintcr "Ausstellungen James 
Rosenquist, (o Baer." /><'* Kunstwerk 
(Sum-. mi I (Jan I971),pp 79 -80 


Kunsthalle Koln, James Rosenquist: 

Gemalde — Raume — Graphik, Jan 29 

Mar. 12. Organized by the Wallraf-Richartz- 

Museums, Cologne. Exh. cat. with text by 

Evelyn Weiss and excerpts from previously 

published articles and interviews. 

— Weiss I trelyn Zui \usstcllung [ames 
Rosenquist in dei Kunsthalle." \tu ■■ n 
in Kdln Bulletin I I. no I (Feb 1972), 
pp 1018-19 

Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 
James Rosenquist, Apr. 12-May 29 Traveled 
to Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, 
June 30-Sept. 3. Exh. cat. with essay by 
Marcia Tucker. 

s, hjeldahl Pi t< i I h< Rosenquist 
Synthesis I" in \mttka N< w York I 60 
no 2 (Mai \pr l 1 ' - :' pp 36 61 

( mull., h .In. I h. Big l lit |acel 
Retrospci rive 1 In New York Finn ■ 
Apr 23 1972 |- 21 Sec also James 
Rosenquist \rl Mailbag [ames 
Rosenquist Replies." Tin New York Times 
Ma) 1-4. 1972, pp 23 24 
— Battcock Gregorj James Rosenquist." 
In Magazim (New York) 46, no (Ma) 
1972 pp 49- 52 Revised stightl) and 
published in Battcock H hy I" Casual 
\,.i, on tii, [esthetics oj r/n hnmediati Past, 
pp 57-65 New York I R Dutton, 1977 
See also Marcia Packer's lett< t to tin editor 
in response to B itti oi k irrii I, Irfj 
Magazine (New York) 46, no 8 (summer 
1972 p i 

S[iegel] |[eanne] Reviews and 
Pro iews [ames Rosenquist ' irtnewi 
(New York) 71, no 4 (summer 1972 p 58 

Margo Leavin Gallery, Los Angeles, James 
Rosenquist. Lithographs, May 9-31. 


Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, James 

Rosenquist, May 26-June 16. 

— Frank, Peter Revii ws and Previews 
[ames Rosenquist ittnen Nev, York) "2 
no 7 (Sept I973),pp B4 85 

Amerika Haus Berlin, James Rosenquist, 
Sept. 20-0ct. 27. Exh. cat. with essay by 
Karl Ruhrberg. 

Portland Center for the Visual Arts, Oreg., 

James Rosenquist, Oct. 

— Kelly, David "Unusual Images Jar 
Viewers at [ames Rosenquist show 
///, Sunday < )regonian (Portl ind) Oct 28 
[97 I p 16 

Stedehjk Museum, Amsterdam, James 
Rosenquist, Oct. 5-Dec. 2. Traveled as Recent 
Prints by James Rosenquist to Albright-Knox 
Art Gallery, Buffalo, June 12-July 1. Exh. 
cat. in Dutch and English with essay by Wim 
A L Beeren. 

Jack Glenn Gallery, Corona del Mar, Calif, 
Rosenquist, opened Oct. 27. 


Max Protetch Gallery, Washington, D.C., 

Rosenquist, opened Jan. 18. 

Castelli Graphics, New York, Feb. 2-16. 

I »reiss [osepli \"- R< * iews Museum 
and Galler) Reviews [ames Rosenquist." 
Im, Magazim (New York) 48, no 7 (Api 

197 i p '.4 

Scottish Arts Council Gallery, Edinburgh, 
Rosenquist Prints, Feb. 9-Mar. 10. Traveled 
to Art Gallery and Museum, Aberdeen, 
Mar. 16-Apr. 7, City Museum and Art 
Gallery, Dundee, Apr. 13-May 12. Exh. cat. 
with previously published essay by W.A L 

Jared Sable Gallery, Toronto, James 
Rosenquist, Mar 30-Apr. 13, 1974. 

— Nasgaard, Roald "Arts Reviews [ami ■ 
Rosenquist at Jared Sable.' Irti Magazim 
„, York 18 no 9 |unt 1974 ,p 71 

Norrkopings Museum, Sweden, James 
Rosenquists Litografier, summer. Exh. cat 

Mayor Gallery, London, James Rosenquist 
An Exhibition of Paintings 1961-1973, 
Dec. 3, 1974 Jan. 18, 1975. Exh. cat. with 
introduction by David Sylvester and previously 
published statements by Rosenquist 

Burr, [ames 'Round the Galleries Pop 
,,i ,| u Billboard." Ipollo (London) 100 
no 154 (De. i" - ' p 518 
—Burn, (.us 'James Rosenqubi 
Review (1 ondon) 26, nos 25 26 (Dei I I 
p 74 


Jared Sable Gallery, Toronto. 

I i.iuli Gar) Mil h l< I 'Reviews Loronto 
I imes Rosenquist ' irtstanada I [brent 
no 4 nos 202 03 (wintei 1975 76) p ^2 

The New Gallery, Cleveland, Ohio, James 
Rosenquist: Recent Work, Jan. 11-Feb. 8. 

Knoedler Contemporary Prints, New York, 
James Rosenquist: Recent Mural Prints, 
Apr. 23-June 6. 

— Ellenzwcig, VUen "Arts Reviews [ames 
Rosenquist In Via \a imi (Nev. Yorl 
no i (Sept 1975) p 4 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, James 

Rosenquist, Sept. 27-Oct. 18. 

Patton Phil. "Reviews [ami i 
Rosenquist Leo < ist< Hi « I ill* r) Uptown 
Arlfomm New York) I t no I I i 
pp 69 70 

Leo Castelli Graphics, New York, Nov. 12-30. 
— Drciss. Joseph "Arts Reviews [ami 
Rosenquist In \4aga ^lev, York) 19, 

no 5 [an 1975 p 14 

Margo Leavin Gallery, Los Angeles, James 
Rosenquist: Paintings, Dec. 12, 1975- 
Jan. 24, 1976. 

I ev, illcn, < onstancc 'Rosenqui - 

Worli \rtweeh I »al Ian I I '• 

[976),pp I 16 


Greenberg Gallery, Saint Louis, James 

Rosenquist, May 15 -June 30. 

Mn, ffler, Philip V."Gi Caller) 

Shows Pop Works." St ' ""■ / '- 

June ' I97i B.p.6 

Mayor Gallery, London, James Rosenquist 
New Paintings, Sept 29-Nov. 5. 

— Vaizey, M irina Rosi nquist \rts Review 
no 2i Oct 15,1 

PP 5 I 


Sable-Castelh Gallery. Toronto, James 

Rosenquist, Apr. 9-23. 

Anete Grafica, Milan, Rosenquist, opened 
May 26. 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, James 
Rosenquist, Sept. 24 Oct 15. 

Russell, |ohn V Work: b) I imi ■ 

Rosenquist " 77ii Oct 

p 2 ' 
1 1. nr) Gerrit "-■ v York Res it ws 
I imct Rosi nquist ' [rtnem (New Yorl 
no in Dei 19 p I [0 
-Rubinfii n.Lco Res ii ws |amcs 
Rosenquist, I • • > ( astelli < Jailer) \rtforum 
New York 16 no I (Dc« 19 

PP '■ 

Zimmei W illi im \" H 
Rosenquist I 

p 'i 

Getler/Pall, New York, James Rosenquist: 
New Prints, Sept. 27-Oct. 20. 

Pomtret M irgar I \rts Reviews fame! 

Rosenquist In Waga im N 

„o 5 |an 19 8 p 14 

Jacksonville Art Museum, Fiji , Jim and Bob: 
The Florida Connection, Oct. 20-Nov. 20. 
Exh. cat. 


Mayor Gallery, London, Recent Paintings, 

Nov. 29, 1978-Jan. 1979. 

. | hi i ondon Res iews I 

nd 10 no !4 D 

p 682 

Multiples, New York, James Rosenquist 
Hand-Colored Etchings, 1978, Nov. 18 
Dec. 30 


The John and Mable Ringling Museum 

of Art, Sarasota, James Rosenquist Graphics 

Retrospective, Feb. 1-Mar. 25. Traveled 

to Fort Lauderdale Museum ot 

May 8-June 24. Exh. cat. with introduction 

by Elayne H. Varian. 

Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, Recent 
Prints by James Rosenquist, June 12 July 1. 

Plains Art Museum, Moorhead, Minn., James 
Rosenquist: Seven Paintings, Oct. 7 Nov. 25. 


Castelh-Feigen-Corcoran Gallery, New York, 

Rosenquist, May 17-June 14. 


— Russell.John " \rl Rosi nquisl 
//„ \,u \.-d Umes, May 30,< ( 
p. 14 

— Ffrcnch-1 razicr, Nina \ New York 
Letter [aines Rosenquist." Art International 
(Lugano) 24.nos I 2 (Sept Oci 1980). 
pp 82 84 

-i rank, Eli: : « "' 

Exhibition] I Ro nquisi at l astelli- 

Feigen-i New 

Vbrl No\ 1980) p 137 

Texas Gallery, Houston, Paintings, 
Sept. 27-0ct. 25. 


Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, James 

Rosenquist, Jan. 24-Feb 21. 

— Ashbery [ohn \rt Spai ed-Oul 
Rosenquist " iSTi wsweek (New Yorli I 97, 

i i p *4 

— Nadelman, ( ynthia Ni « York 
Reviews James Rosenquist " Irtneu 
(New Yorl Ma) 1981) p 189 

Castelli-Goodman-Solomon Gallery, East 
Hampton, NY, James Rosenquist: Selected 
Prints, Aug. 8-22. 

Dolly Fiterman Art Gallery, Minneapolis, 
High Technology and Mysticism: A Meeting 
Point, Oct. 30-Nov. 30. 

— Addington, I ran "Rosenqui l 
New Directions." Minneapolis Tribune, 
Nov 15, 1981, sec. G,p 14 


Castelh-Feigen-Corcoran Gallery, New York, 
James Rosenquist: House of Fire, Mar. 3- 

Apr. 17. 

—Larson, Kay "The Fire Within.' Neu York 
15 no 

— Russell |ohn "Art A Good Way to I ook 
at Frcni h « >ld Masters.' Tlu NewYork 
runes, Mar 26, 19 , 24 

Barbara Gillman Gallery, Miami, High 
Technology and Mysticism: A Meeting Point, 

—Kohen. Helen L "Rosenqui 
i, Miami Herald |un 
I p 2 

Mayor Gallery, London, James Rosenquist: 
Paintings from the Sixties, June 1-July 3. 

Exh. cat. with essay by Richard Shone and 

previously published statements by 


—Hooker. Denise "London Reviews 
I unes Rosenquist Mayor ( iallerj i" 
Review (] ondon) 34 no 13 (June 18, 
L982). p 322. 

Gloria Luria Gallery, Bay Harbor Islands, 
Fla., James Rosenquist: Major New Works, 
opened June 9. 

— Kohen. Helen I "RosenquistWiew ol 
Reality I'h. Miami FfcroH.June 20, 1982 
sec I . p - 

Metropolitan Museum and Art Center, Coral 
Gables, F-lll and Flamingo Capsule, closed 
July 4. 

—Kohen, Helen I "Rosenquist s View ol 
K, ,ht\ " Tin Miami Herald June 20, 1982 
iei I . p 2 

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, 
James Rosenquist at Colorado State 
University, Sept. l-0ct. 31. Exh. cat. with 
essay by Ron G. Williams. 

I lurni in, Irene Rosenquist Multiple 
m Mammoth 
Scale " Rocky Mountain News (1 >enver), 
Sepi Vi ekend sec . pp 10, 16 

Castelh-Feigen-Corcoran Gallery, New York, 
James Rosenquist, opened Nov. 9 


Center for the Fine Arts, Miami, James 

Rosenquist, Apr. 22-June 5. 

rasker.Frcdi I lying Bacoi 
Polii j Sizzling \gain." flic Miami Herald, 

C,p. 1 
—Harper, Paula "A Spai I ml i St u 
Iliui "■" 17k Miami Vow, Apr 22. 1983 

see Dp 5 

— Tiehs, I aurel "Stai linn Wis the 
Star, but Fans Stole the Show." The Miami 
Herald, \pr 27 1983, ice B.p 2 

— Gluei k ( ■> i ^" ■•"'■ I I "" 

NewYorl Times, [uly 21 1983 sec C,p L5 

Van Straaten Gallery, Chicago, James 
Rosenquist: Paintings and Works on Paper, 

Thorden Wetterling Galleries, Goteborg, 
James Rosenquist, Sept. 17-0ct. 16. 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, James 
Rosenquist, Oct. 1-22. 

— R..\ \ ivien Vrt American Imager) 

by James Rosenquist," Hn NewYork Times 

Oct it 1983 ie< ( p y> 
smith. Roberta "Photos and Realism." 

The l illagt l Wo (New York) 28, no 44 
. n l. 1983). p 95 
Moul ii" ge Nicol is \ "James 

Rosenquist i"' (New York) 58, 

no i (De< 1983). p 1 

— Moufarrege, Nicolas A I lash Art 

Reviews |.mies Rosenquist Leo ( astelli.' 

/ lash 4" International (Milan), no 115 I |an 

1984 p 36 


SVC Fine Arts Gallery, University of 
South Florida, Tampa, Rosenquist, May 18- 
June 30. 

—Loft. Kim "It Takes Work to < n it< 
1 1„ Smell of i Robot The Tampa 
Tribum May 20, 1984, sec G, pp I - 

Thorden Wetterling Galleries, Stockholm, 
James Rosenquist: New Paintings, fall. 
Exh. cat. 

Smith College Museum of Art, Northampton, 
Mass., James Rosenquist and Maurice 
Sanchez: Artist and Printer, A Decade of 
Collaboration, Nov. 8, 1984-Jan. 20, 1985. 


Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, James 
Rosenquist: The Persistence of Electrical 
Nymphs in Space, Apr. 27-June 18. 

— Glueck, Grace "Art: James Rosenquist." 
Tin NewYork rimes, May I 1985, tei ( . 

P 23 

The Denver Art Museum, James Rosenquist 
Paintings 1961-1985, May 15-July 14. 
Traveled to Contemporary Arts Museum, 
Houston, Aug. 24-0ct. 20; Des Moines Art 
Center, Nov. 29, 1985-Jan. 26, 1986; 
Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, Mar 14 
May 4, 1986, Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York, June 26-Sept. 21, 1986; 
National Museum of American Art, 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 
Oct. 24, 1986-Jan. 11, 1987. Cat., James 
Rosenquist (NewYork: Viking Penguin, 1985), 
by Judith Goldman. 

— Clurman, Irene. "Old, New I oom I irg 
in Rosenquist's Work.' Rocky Mountain 
\,„, (1 li rtvi i May 15, 1985 p 52 
— Price, Max "Rosenquist Pop Work Will 
Be Very Big in M ty 1 1" Denvei Post, 
•\ P r 21, 1985. p 19 

( hum. m, Irene "Retrospi ctive R 
Mountain News (Denver), May 12. 1985, 
l pp - 1 5 
Price, Max "Monument J Images Tin 
Denvei Post, May 12, 1985, sec D,pp 1,20 
_Pri( i Max \ Really Big Show " I7ii 
Denvei Post May 15, 1985 sec D, pp I '• 
— Price, Max "Visiting Painter I ikes 
the sue ol I lis Show." The Denvei Post 
May 15, 1985, s< i D, pp I, 3 

K iti lit t < arter "Rosenquist s Rouge.' 
Irtforum (NewYork) 10 (summer 
1985), pp 92-94 

[ohmon, Pi i l "Rosenquist s 

Billboard-Size Works Are Beautifully 
Rewarding." Houston Chronicle, hug 31, 
[985, sei 4 p I 

— Fudge.Jane "From Pop's Place to 
i inter Space 1 Ik |ames Rosenquist 
Retrosp ti> Irtspaa (Albuquerqu 
I fall 1985), pp 20 23 

— Everingham, < arol ] "I :s Rosenquist 

Paints the Signs ol the I imes " The Houston 

September 2s. 1985 se< G.pp 1,3. 
— Heartney I leanoi Rosenquist 
Revisited." Irtnews (NewYork) 85 no.6 
,, iimiii,! 1986) pp 98 103 

Russell, [ohn fVrt James Rosenquist 
in Retrospective." Tlie NewYork Tinu . 
|n»e 27. 1986. sec C,p.28 
— Wallach.Amei "New Flights ol Fancy." 
Newsday (New York),June 29, 1986, part 2, 
pp l -5, I 3 

Sozanski, Edward J "A Superstar 
Pop Artist rwenty-five Years I 
Hi, Philadelphia Inquirei July I J, 1986, 
sec M.p 12 

— Larson.Kay I ire and Ice ' NewYork 19 
no 28 (July 21, 1986) pp 58 59 
— Pincus, Robert l "Poet of Pop \rt I inds 
Bigger Is still Better." Tlie San Diego ' nion, 
[uly 27, I986,se< I ,pp I. 4 
—Hughes. Robert "Art Memories S< iled 
md Scrambled." rime (New York) 128, 
no 6 Vug li 1986) p 69 
— Tout igny, Maurii e 'B oscnquist 
l { pi intn a ses raisons " '-< Devoii 
\\, „,.,. ,l Sept 6 1986 ' ■ 

I evin, Kim "Below Zero.' Tht I illagt I bio 
(New York) 31, no J6 (Sept 9, 1986), p 76 
—Wilson, William. "James Rosenquist Put 
On oi I Sreat \merican Artist?" Daytona 
Beach Sunday News-Journal, Sept 21, 1986, 
sec H p I" 

— Kuspit Donald "New York | 
Rosenquist: Whitney Museum of American 
Art " \rtfoTum (New Y.>rki 25, no 2 i 
1986) pp 128-29 

— Tillyard, Virginia •'Exhibition Reviews 
NewYorl Whitney Museum Rosenquist 
Retrospective." The Burlington Magazine 
I ondon) 1003 (Oct 1986), 

—Richard, Paul "James Rosenquist's 
Dreamy I andmarks in I ime flu 
Washington Post, Ocl 1 V 1986, se< < 
pp. 1-2 

—Allen, Jane Addams "'Pop Prince 
Rosenquist Looks Ahead." 111. Washington 
nm«,Oci 24. I986.sec B.pp I 9 
— Schwabsky, Barry "James Rosenquist at 
the Whitney Museum." Artscribe 
International (London).no 60 (Non Dec 
[986), pp 77-78. 

— Narrett, Eugene "Rosenquist in 
Retrospect Wrestling with the American 
i loddess.' New \" Examinei (( hi< igo) 14, 
no 4 (Dec 1986). pp 23 25 
—Jones, Roland. "Reviews: Nev, York 
James Rosenquist Paintings 1961- 1985, 
Whitney Museum." Flash irt International 
(Milan).no 131 (De< 1986 [an 1987), 
p 88 

( otter, Holland "Advertisements for a 
M, m \_ topia I" in Imerica (New York) 
75, no I (Jan 1987). pp 82 89 
— Camnitzer, I uis 'James Rosenquist en el 
Museo\* hitney ' I"' en Colombia 
(Bogota),no 33 (May 1987) pp 4 19 

Catherine G. Murphy Gallery, Saint Paul, 
James Rosenquist Prints, Sept. 4-27. 


Heland Thorden Wetterling Galleries, 
Stockholm, James Rosenquist Prints: Ladies 
of the Opera Terrace, Oct. 


Heland Thorden Wetterling Galleries, 
Stockholm, James Rosenquist: One Painting 
and One Print, Jan. 22-28. 

Galerie Daniel Templon, Paris, James 
Rosenquist, Apr. 29-May 30. 

Heland Thorden Wetterling Galleries, 
Stockholm, James Rosenquist: Paintings 
1987, Dec. 3, 1987-Jan. 17, 1988. Exh. cat 
with statement by Rosenquist. 


Florida State University Gallery and Museum, 
Tallahassee, James Rosenquist, Mar. 11- 
Apr. 17. Traveled to the University Gallery at 
Memphis State, Memphis, Apr. 29-June 12; 
Polk Museum of Art, Lakeland, Fla., 
Sept. 16-Nov. 25. Exh. cat. with essay by 
Craig Adcock. 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, James 
Rosenquist: Through the Eye of the Needle to 
the Anvil, Apr. 23-May 14. 

Richard L. Feigen & Company, Chicago, 
James Rosenquist: New Work, May 5- 
June 24 

USF Art Museum, College of Fine Arts, 
University of South Florida, Tampa, James 
Rosenquist at USF, Oct. 10-Dec. 3. Exh. cat. 
with essay by Donald J. Saff. 


Richard L. Feigen & Company, Chicago, 

James Rosenquist: Flashl.fe, opened May 12. 

Richard L Feigen & Company, London, 
James Rosenquist: New Paintings, 
June 27-July 28. 

— Y[ood] ,J[ames] Reviews I 
Rosenquist: Feigen & Company \rtforum 
(New York) 28, no 2 (Oct 19* 
pp i s,. 81 

Heland Wetterling Gallery, Stockholm, 
Welcome to the Water Planet, Nov 
1989-Jan 1990. Exh. cat. with essay by 
Judith Goldman. 


Universal Limited Art Editions, New York, 
James Rosenquist— Never Mind: From 
Thoughts to Drawing, Jan. 17-Feb. 17. Exh. 
cat. with essay by John Yau. 

— Wallach.Amei I Kplorations in Space 
Vewsday (New York). Feb B. 1990. part 2, 
pp. 8-9 

The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 
James Rosenquist: Welcome To The Water 
Planet, Feb. 7-May 1 Traveled to Laguna 
Gloria Art Museum, Austin, Tex., Sept 
8-0ct. 21, 1990; University of Missouri, 
Kansas City, Jan. 20-Mar. 22, 1991; The Art 
Museum, University of California, Santa 
Barbara, June 25-Aug. 11, 1991, Center for 
the Arts, Vero Beach, Fla., Dec. 1-Jan. 19, 
1992; University of Kentucky Art Museum, 
Lexington, Mar. 22-May 10, 1992. Exh. cat. 
(Mount Kisco, New York: Tyler Graphics, 
1989), James Rosenquist: Welcome to the 
Water Planet and House of Fire, 1988-1989. 
Essay by Judith Goldman. Published in 
conjunction with this exhibition and the 
traveling European exhibition originating in 
1989 at Heland Wetterling Gallery, 
Stockholm, and organized by Tyler Graphics. 
— Wallai l' -\'"" Explorations in S| 
Newsda] (New York),Feb 8 I990.part 2. 

IT i 

—"James Ros< nquist it 1 1" Museum ol 

Modem Art." I" Vow Caller] i 

, i, Plains. NJ.) 20. no. 7 (Mai 19 1 

p 'ii, 

Erika Meyerovich Gallery, San Francisco, 
James Rosenquist, Welcome to the Water 
Planet and House of Fire, 1988-1989, 
Apr. 6-May 12. 

Glenn-Dash Gallery, Los Angeles, James 
Rosenquist, Welcome to the Water Planet and 
House of Fire, 1988-1989, Apr. 7-May 5. 

Richard L. Feigen & Company, Chicago, 
James Rosenquist, Welcome to the Water 
Planet and House of Fire, 1988-1989, 
May 5-June 2. 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, James 
Rosenquist, Oct. 20-Nov. 17. 

— Bass.Ruth "Reviews James Roi [uisi 

Leo< astelli \rtneun (New York) 90 qo I 

[an 1991). p 143 
, | Rourk- Mi ■ [ames Rosenquist 

i,,, Uagazim (Nev, York) 5 (Jan 

[991 p 83 
Decter, [oshua "Reviews James 

Rosenquist Leo < astelU.' F/<u/i I" 

International (Milan) 156 (Jan - 

Feb I991).p i 1 "' 


Tretyakov Museum, Central Hall of Artists, 
Moscow, Rosenquist: Moscow 1961-1991, 
Feb. 5-Mar. 5. Exh. cat. in Russian and 
English with essay by Donald J. Saff and 
previously published essay by Craig Adcock 

IVAM Centre Julio Gonzalez, Valencia, 
James Rosenquist, May 17-Aug. 18. Exh. 
cat. in Spanish and English with essay by 
Craig Adcock, previously published statements 
by Rosenquist, interview with Rosenquist by 
David Shapiro, and previously published 
interviews with Rosenquist by Doon Arbus, 
Richard Bernstein, Jeanne Siegel, Gene 
Swenson, Mary Anne Stamszewski. Trans. 
Javier Garcia Raffi and Harry Smith 
I ffett. William "Publication! P 
[wi mi th 1 1 ntury \meru in \" lames 
Rosenquist." Buriington M Ion) 

[ I"" ' |uly 1992 p 159 


Gagosian Gallery, New York, James 
Rosenquist: The Early Pictures 1961 -1964, 
May 2-July 11. Exh. cat. (New York: 
Gagosian Gallery in association with Rizzoh, 
1992) by Judith Goldman, with essay by 
Goldman and interview with Rosenquist by 

— Kimmelman, Mil had I rom 
Rosenquist, a Pli ising Look it I irlj P 
wYork fltnei I 

P 33 

I u Kay "Unloading the * inon 

pp 62 63 

■ I lassi. Pop.' "« 
Village Voice (New York '"" '' 

p 96 

—Bart ray I I David Smith \ \ 

Rosenquist." Coya (Madrid s 229 10 

i [uly I »cl 1992). pp 104 05 

Guti an l I |ami Rosenquist 

Uelia (Tokyo).no 78 Sept 
pp jo >9 In I nglish ind |apai 
K[uspic].. D(onald] B 

Rosenquist Gago ian Gallery." \rtfoi 

(NewYorl ■ " l4 

Galeria Weber, Alexander y Cobo, Madrid, 
James Rosenquist: Paintings 1990-1992, 
May 14-July 25. Exh. cat in Spanish and 
English with statement by Rosenquist. 


Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Paris, James 
Rosenquist: Recent Paintings, Oct. 17- 
Nov. 21. Exh. cat., The Serenade for the Doll 
after Claude Debussy or Gift Wrapped Dolls 
and Masquerade of the Military Industrial 
Complex Looking Down on the Insect World, 
in French and English with essay by Ann 
Hindry and statements by Rosenquist, trans. 
Nathalie Brunet, Neal Copper, Helene Gille. 


Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, James 
Rosenquist: Time Dust, The Complete 
Graphics, 1962-1992, Mar. 7-May 9. 
Traveled to Honolulu Academy of Arts, 
June 16-Aug. 8; Sarah Campbell Blaffer 
Gallery, University of Houston, Sept. 10-0ct. 
31, Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art, 
University of Florida, Gainesville, Dec. 5, 
1993-Feb. 6, 1994; Montgomery Museum of 
Fine Arts, Mar. 8-June 13, 1994; Huntsville 
Museum of Art, Ala., Oct. 23, 1994-Jan. 8, 
1995; Elvehjem Museum of Art, Madison, 
Wise, Mar. 4-Apr. 30, 1995; Joslyn Art 
Museum, Omaha, June 17-Sept. 10, 1995, 
Neuberger Museum of Art, State University 
of Mew York at Purchase, Oct. 22, 1995- 
Jan. 7, 1996; San Diego Museum of Art, San 
Diego, Mar. 2-May 5, 1996; Davenport 
Museum of Art, Iowa, Mar. 1-Apr. 27, 1997. 
Organized by The University Art Museum, 
California State University, Long Beach. Exh. 
cat, catalogue raisonne of Rosenquist's prints 
(New York: Rizzoli in association with the 
University Art Museum, California State 
University, Long Beach, 1993), Time Dust, 
James Rosenquist: Complete Graphics, 
1962-1992, by Constance W. Glenn. 

— Abbe, Mar) and Steven Henrj Mjdoff. 
Prii \rtnewi 

(New York) 9 
p 125 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, James 
Rosenquist: The Serenade for the Doll after 
Claude Debussy or Gift Wrapped Dolls and 
Masquerade of the Military Industrial 
Complex Looking Down on the Insect World, 
Mar. 20-Apr. 17. Exh. cat. with statements 
by Rosenquist and interview with Rosenquist 
by David Whitney. 

— Russell.John "A Painter I inds I hat 
I lolls ( in Bi Dynamitt ' Thi \nrVork 
nma.Apr 11 1993. p JO 

— Heartney, I leanor "Reviews Malevolent 
D,,ll-. Ii « York) 92, no 6 

p 167 
—Adams. Brooks 'Review .'t Exhibitions 
|ames Rosenquist at Castelli." -1" "' 
\merica (New York) 82 no I Jan I9 ( 
P 109 

Alyce de Roulet Williamson Gallery, 
Art Center College of Design, Pasadena, 
James Rosenquist: Recent Paintings, 
Mar. 27-May 29. 

Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Salzburg, 
James Rosenquist. Recent Paintings, 
Apr. 3-May 22. Exh. cat. 

Akira Ikeda Gallery, Japan, James 
Rosenquist: The Serenade for the Doll after 
Claude Debussy or Gift Wrapped Dolls, 
Sept. 3-30. Exh. cat. in English. 

Feigen, Chicago, James Rosenquist: Gift 
Wrapped Dolls or Serenade for the Doll after 
Claude Debussy, Sept. 10-0ct. 9. Exh. cat. 
with poem by Jessica Hagedorn and 
previously published essay by John Russell. 


Richard L. Feigen & Company, London, 
James Rosenquist: Gift Wrapped Dolls, 
May 25-June 24. 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, James 
Rosenquist: The Thirtieth Anniversary 
Exhibition, Oct. 15-Nov. 12. Exh. cat. 
— Aukcnun. Anastasia "Reviews [amej 
Rosenquist I eo ( astelli Irtnews 
(New York i 94 no 2 Feb 1995). p 122 
— Kahna, Richard "Review of Exhibitions 
fames Rosenquisi at Leo ( istelli I" '" 
Inuriu Mev, Yorl Mai 1995 

p. 100 

Wetterling Teo Gallery, Singapore, James 
Rosenquist— Paintings, Oct. 31-Dec. 4. 

Wetterling Teo Gallery, Singapore, Flower 
Paintings, Nov. 1994-Feb. 1995. Exh. cat. 

Portland Art Museum, Oreg., James 
Rosenquist: Recent Work, Dec. 9, 1994- 
Apr. 2, 1995. 


Pyo Gallery, Seoul, James Rosenquist: 
The Big Paintings, Mar. 7-30. Exh. cat. in 
Korean and English with previously published 
essays by Kay Larson, Meg 0'Rourke, Carter 
Ratcliff, and Roberta Smith. 

Seattle Art Museum, James Rosenquist 
Paintings, May 15-Aug. 6. 

Civico Museo Revoltella, Galleria d'Arte 
Moderna, Trieste, James Rosenquist: Gli anni 
novanta, June 11-Sept. 15. Exh. cat. in 
Italian and English with introductions by 
Roberto Damiani and Maria Masau Dan and 
essay by Craig Adcock. 


Indigo Galleries, Boca Raton, James 
Rosenquist: New Paintings and Constructions, 
Feb. 8-Mar. 2. 

Graphicstudio Gallery, University of South 
Florida, College of Fine Arts, Tampa, James 
Rosenquist: A Retrospective of Prints Made 
at Graphicstudio 1971-1996, Apr. 11- 
June 27. 

—Milani. Joanne "Rosenquist: The Vision 
Quest Fhi Tampa Tribune, M.i\ 5, 1996 

p P i : 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, James 
Rosenquist, 4 E 77 St 1970 Revisited and 
New Paper Constructions from Gemini 
G.E.L., Apr. 20-May 18. Exh. cat. with 
statement by Rosenquist. 

Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Paris, 
James Rosenquist: Target Practice, 
May 14-June 15. Exh. cat. with statement 
by Rosenquist. 

Feigen, Chicago, Target Practice: Recent 
Paintings by James Rosenquist, May 31- 
July 26. Exh. cat. with essay by Craig Adcock 
and statement by Rosenquist. 

Brenau University Galleries, Gainesville, Ga., 
James Rosenquist. Painting and Prints, 
July 13-0ct. 4, Exh. cat. with essay by Craig 

Gemini G.E.L., Los Angeles, New Paper 
Constructions, Sept. 20-Dec. 


Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Paris, 

James Rosenquist: Three Large Paintings, 

Feb. 4-Mar. 8. 

Heland Wetterling Gallery, Stockholm, Target 
Practice, Mar.-Apr. Exh. cat. with statement 
by Rosenquist. 

Center for Contemporary Graphic Art and 
Tyler Graphics Archive Collection, Fukushima, 
Japan, The Graphics of James Rosenquist, 
Mar. 1-June 15. Exh. cat. in Japanese and 
English with essay by Judith Goldman and 
interview with Rosenquist by Kaoru Yanase 
and Shunichi Kamiyama. 

Wetterling Teo Gallery, Singapore, 
James Rosenquist: New Works 1996, 
Aug. 15-Sept. 30. Exh. cat. with statement 
by Rosenquist. 



Compiled by Janice Yang 
Mosl citations provide original-publication 
information only Reprints or later versions aw 
given it commonly referenced or significant!) 
revised from the originals, 01 il original sources 
are partii ularly diffi< uli to i 

Artist Books, Writings, and Statements 
by the Artist 

Sources died below may also appeal in othei pan 
,/„ Seleei Bibliography 01 in the Exhibition History 


|ames Rosenquist's 'New Realism.'" In "Young 
Talent USA." special issue ol I" in l"""-' 
(New York) 51, no. 3 (June 1963), p 48. 

Statement in Dorothy ( Miller, ed [mericans 

iw,i, p 87 I ich cai rhe Museum of Modem 
Art. New York 


"Experiences." In James Rosenquisl,p ss ! ■■'' 

cat., II"-- National Galley ol C anada, Ottawa 


"James Rosenquist Horse Blinder* I" Now 
VewYork (New York) 2 (Feb 1969 
unpaginated Excerpt from a previously 
unpublished statement dated De< 12, 1968 
rhe statement appears in its entirety in James 
Rosenquist,?? 21 29 (Spanish), 196 (English) 
Exh [ u IVAM Centre Julio Gonzalez 
Valencia, 1991 Irans Javier Garcia Raffi ind 
I t.i 1 1\ Smith. 


Statemenl in "Gene Swenson A < omposite 
Portrait.' flu Registei oj the Museum oJArt 
i wrence; i pubhcai ol the University ol 

Kansas) 4. 1 Ocl De< 1971). pp. 24 27 


"Art Mailbag |ames Rosenquist RepUes 

n „ NewYork Ames May 14, 1972, pp 23-24 


Statement in Grace Glueck rhe Iwentieth- 

( entury \rtists Most Admired by Other 

Amsts" Arlnews (Nw York) 9 (Nov 

1977) pp 98 99 


Statement in Judith Goldman ' touching 

Moonlight \rtnews (New York) 1 no 9 
(New 1978), p 62 


Rosenquist, James Drawings II hile Waiting 

foi an Idea. Nev, York I app Princess Press, 1979 


Statement in James Rosenquist Paintings 198 . 
unpaginated Exh cat . Heland T/hordcn 
WetterUng Galleries, Stoi kholm 


Statement in ( atherine Barnett Wis- M n 
Fish Hero ■ Irt and Uniques (New York). Feb. 
1988, p 91 


Statement in James Rosenquisl's < ommissioned 
II, „k p 6 Stockholm Painters Posters in 
,„„,„ with WetterUng Gallery 1990 


si itement in James Rosenquist Paintings 

\Q90-i992 pp i Spanish), J1 'I nglisl 

cat., Galena Weber, Alexandei j < "I"' Madrid 

Statements in James Rosenquist flu Serenade foi 
,/„ Dollaflei Claud, Debuss) o\ CiftWrapped 
Dolls and Masquerade of tlu Military Industrial 
l om pla Looking Doivn on f/ii bisect World, 
pp iv ■■■' I Oi cat Galeric rhaddaeiw Ropa< 
Paris In English ind French trans Nathalie 
Brunet,NeaK ooper, Hclene Gillc Reprinted 
in ex h cat ,Leo< astelli Gallery. NewYork, 
1993, pp 5, 15 

Statemenl in Paul Gardner 'Do rides Really 
Matter: \rlnew (NewYork) ''I no 2 (Feb 
I992),p 95 


Statement in Milton Esterow "The Second 
Inm \round Jew York) "2 

n0 i, (summer 1993), p 152 

Statement in Margot Mifflin. "What Do Artists 
Dream?' \nnews (NewYork) 92 no B I ' 

[99 i p l 19 


Statement in Eugenia Bom Welcome to 

Sponge ( icy." flu VeivYork Ol ei May 9, 

1994, p is 


si itement in 'Returned to ' 

Remembering Ray Johnson R S.V.P." irtfontm 

(NewYork) 13, no B ^pi 1995).pp 75,113 


Statemenl in fames Rosenquist, 4 ' s ' '"' " 

I and V" Pai nstructiom from Gemini 

C.E.I p. 1.1 -li cat Leo< istelli I Gallery, 

New V- 1 1. 

Statemenl in Etisei Practici Retenl Paintings by 
/.,„„ Rosenquist, p. 1 Feigi n I 
Reprinted in ]anu Rosenquist VewWbrl 

h cat .Wetterling reo Gallery, Singapon 


Sources cited below may also appeal in othei parts oj 

th, Select Bibliography oi in tlu I xhibition History 


Swenson. G[ene] R "What is PopAri Part II 
Stephen Durkei [aspei [ohns |a i 1 '^ 

romWesselmann." I" Vet " " l ' l2 

,„, |0 (Feb 1964), pp 41.62 64 


Swen .Glene] R rh( I 111 \n Interview 

with |ames Rosenquisi by G P Swen 

p art i ian Review (New Vbrk) J2 no. 4 (fall 19 
pp 589 .,n| 


Swenson, Gem Social Realism in Blue 

A,, Interview with |ame R iquist." Studio 

Internal al London I 

pp 76 83 


Schjeldahl Petei I ntretii n avei [ames 

Rosenquist" I 'An Interview with James 

quist") Opus International I 
nos 29 30 (De< 1971 pp 16 *9 (French), 
Ml 15 (English) Irans Nicola Raw 


Siege] |c inne Vn Interview with James 

quisi Irlfomm (NewYork) 10 
(June 1972) p| > 


ruchman.PhyUii "Pop! Interviews wit! 

Vndy Warhol Roy Lichtenstein. James 
nquist. and Robert Indiana I 
(NewYork) May I974).pp ! 


Snodgrass, Susan d« Mba "An Intervii m with 

th, \i ,n w ho Painti d I lying Bacon 
lh. Miami \<« |unt I I< B pp I 


( ummings Paul Inti rview |ames Rosi nquisl 
l jia with Paul ( ummings Drawing (New 
Y 0r y 5,no 2 |uly r\ug 1983) pp 10 14 


s, in j I, ,.. iki Mary \ntu |am< i Ros< nquisi 

Bomb (New York 21 (fall 1987 pp !4 "' 


[ames Rosenquisi Inti • 

i„, < i I '"'"' 

Rosenquist'i ' ommissioned Works pp 8 58 

Stockholm Paintei Po tci ii i • ion with 

rling Gall ry 1990 


Durand,Rcgis I |U»« 

i | ,. ini arnation di imagi l '' |,|r,sl 
no 158 (May I991).pp 14 21 

Shapiro David ' elebrating I verything." In 
'ami Rosenquisi pp 76 84 (Spanish), 209 I ' 
(] nglish) I «h cai IVAM I entn |uUo 

il , Valencia I r lUl "" l 

Harry Smith 

faylor, Paul Interview with James Rosenquisi 
Parketi (Zurich), no 28(1991 pp 11" 

, lvhl [22 25 German Irans Brigii 
\\, tutein 


Bonami.Frati a <P ui Ml1 " "" 

Pop Flash In (M I 25 no 165 lummei 

Goldman (udith \n Interview with |am« 

nqi Goldman lames Rosenquist 

.,/)■ Pimm 1961 85 104 I <h 

an Gallery ind Rizzoli 



Whitney David "James Rosenquisi Ini 

ofFebruary '.5 1993 Inj R /'«'" "" 

,,, fonhi Doll after ( laud, D 
Wrapped Dolls and W ''« W«'/Mr] 

Industrials omple* Looking Down on tlu Insect 


il,.-/,/ pp 2-3 Exh cat . Leo ( ascelli Gallery, 

New York 


VK ocl Interview with James 

Rosenquist." In Susan Brundag 

in ../ //„ Big Paintings Thirty Yeai 
unpaginated New York Leo ( astelli 
Gallerj in association with Rizzoli, 1994 


Yanase Kaoru and Shunichi rCamiyanu 
;, « with James Rosenquist ' In 
Ih, Graphics oj 'Jama Rosenquisl pp 16-20 
I |apanesc I, 44 49 (English) Exh i at . Centei 
i,, i ( ontemporai j I !raphi< An and rylei 
Graphics \rchive ( ollection, Fukushima 

Articles and Essays 

n'on includi fi ■:■ appearing in periodicals, 
ollaiiom oj essayi and growp-i ehibition catalogui 

Mloway, 1 awrenct I »erealized Epic." Arifonm 
(New York) 10, no 1" (Junt 1972) pp 35-41 

Amaya, Mario "Artist's I i ation 

with | iquist." Architectural Digest I os 

Angeles) J7,no 2 (Mai 19 50 52 

Arbus, Doon.'The Man in the Paper Sun" 
I Journal Tribum Magazim 
I \,n 6 I966,pp 

"Art: Pop Bing-Bang L indsi apes Tiim 
(NewYork) 22 (Maj 2s I965).p 80 

"Art: R.osenquis( and Lit In. nsti in hit Alive." 
Inn, (New York) 91, no 4 (Jan 26, 1968), ; 

B|atu<uk| ,Gr[egory] 'In the Museums 
[ames Rosenqui l Mew York* 

,o 6 ' ^pr 1968) p ^ 4 

Bcrti. Paul ' \bout-l >< 1 &om ii.c \bstra< I 
Picttin Post-Dispatch magai ii 

1961 pr 10-11 

Berg, Paul 'Fai Out. but No Laughing Mattel 
PUtun • S I dispatch mag i 

1964, pp 2-5 

Bernstein, Roberta. "Rosenquisl Reflected The 
I.imp.i Prints ' "" Prini < u ''■"" 

(New Yorl A .t \pi 197 1), pp 6-8 

Boorsch Suzanne 'New Editions: James 
Rosenquisl irtnem (New York) 74, no 
( scpt 1975), p. 52 

k h Suzanne 'New I ditiom James 
Rosenquist." /Irfrifiw (NewYork) 77 no 1 (Jan, 
p 136 

Brewster, Ibdd 'Evolution ol a Painting / ifi 

igo) 4,no.2 deb 1981), pp *4-'>4 
Photographs bj Roberl \delman 

Brooks \ ilerie I 'The -\rt M.irket Rosenquist's 
Market: Pop Art Performs Irfnn NewYork) 
83 no J (Mai 1984), p 2" 

Nicolas and Elena < alas "James 
Rosenquisl Vision in the Vernacular." In 
Magazim (New York) 44,no 2 (No\ I 
PP 38-39 Reprinted as "James Rosenquist's 
Angular \ ista In ( al is ind ( alas r«mj .""/ 
■i ii„ Sixties NewYork E I' Dutton, 
1971, pp 117-22 

<. anaday, |ohn Art Well the House t aughl 
fire, and- -" TTti NewYork Finn ■ Mai 17, 1968 

sec I ), p. 33 

i anaday.John "It Would It.' kwfullj Nice If We 
Were All Wrong about theWholi Nihil;" 
nil SewYork Urnes, Feb 25, 1968. se< 2, p. 23. 

( harbonneaux, ( atherine. "Marche Le Pop 
I',,, i unes Rosenquisl ( '.onnaissana fi 

t osford, Mill "Is It Art"- Asking Is Unnecessary.' 
nit Miami Herald, Ma) 15, 1983, ie< I . pp 1.5. 

c oupland, I >ouglas "James Rosenquisl /-///" 
mm (NewYork) 32,no 8 (Apt 19 

pp X4 XS 

<. [owart] ,J[ack] ' I lire., t ontemporary 
American Paintings ih< Si Louis Art Museum 
Bulletin ll no, 5 (Sept I >cl 1975), pp 88-95 

I lunlop Beth "Mui il I h ives Borman up the 
Wall:' Hii Miami Herald D« B 1981, sec. A. 

pp I 14 

i , , sioi ralabot, Gerald l es ambiguftes de 
fames Rosenquisl X Ki SiMt (Pai is), no 41 

pp in-, M 

Geldzahlei Henrj "James Rosenquist's F-lll 
I In Metropolitan Museum oj in Bulletin 
(NewYork) 7 (Mai I968),pp 276 81 

Gladstone Valerie 'James Rosenquisl Vikings 
indVodka irtnews (New York) 90 no * 
Ocl i "''I pp 73-74 

I Grat e "Art People.' Tin NeivYork 
rimes. Apt 16. 1982. sec ( ,p 25 

Goldman, Judith. "James Rosenquist." In 
Contemporary Masters Tin World Print Awards, 

pp |o- 52 i •. h cai World Prim < oum il, in 
cooperation with the San Francisco Museum ol 
Modem Art. i alifornia ( ollege of Arts and 
( Mtts (Oakland), and Osaka University of Arts 
San Francisco World Prim t ouncil, 1983 

man, < athj Lynn "Deserving 1 qual 
Space." nil Miami Herald De< 10, 1981, 

sec B, p I 

I lamilton, Susan Big is Beautiful I In Peak 
(Singapore) 1 18 53 

H|ess| . r|| Ii "Editorial It Shouldn't 
Happen to . Hoving Happening." \rtnews 
(NewYork) 67 no 2 (Api 1968). p 29 

I lorn, I aurie 'Playing < mi. at the An ( enter" 
//„ Miami Hew/rf.Apr 2<>, 1983, ecJ p.6 

It's Imiinv Rosenquist — An Artist in the 

Pop." /'.'• Tower (NewYork) I . no 14 
(Apr 10 21 1967) pp 4-5 Photographs by 
Bob Adelman 

' |arring Blend of Billboard Pie ces.' 1 i/< 

a h„ ago) 52, no 24 (June 15, 1962 ,p I 16 

[ohnson Philip "Young Artists at the F.ur and .it 
Lincoln <• enter" 1./ in Imerica (New York) 52, 
no, 4 (Aug 1964), pp 112-21 

[ohnson, Raj Abandoned < nickens." Art in 
Imerica (New York) 62, no t. (No> -Dec 1974), 

PP M7-I12 

Kohen, Helen I '"Star Thief Deserves Better 

Reputation." //" Miami HcraW.Maj 13, 1983, 

p 12 

Q Ma* An' "" Nation (NewYork) 
206 no IS (Apr 2'>. I968).p 57 

Kramer. Hilton "Art A New 1 langar for 
Rosenquist's Jet-Pop 'F-lir." /'" NewYork 
Inn,-. Kb 17, 1968, p 25 

Kuspit, Donald 'James Rosenquisl -The 
Fragments of a Romance rhe Romance of the 
Fragment." C Magazim (Toronto) no 11 (June 
1986), pp 70-73 

I eiser. Erwin."James Rosenquist." Frankfurtei 
4 llgemeine Magazin (Frankfurt) J4, no 338 
(Aug ::. 1986). pp. 13-18 

Lingemann, Susanne "Mystikei mil Hang air 
Crosse". -1" Das Kunstmagazin (Hamburg), 

no | (Mai 1993), pi' 7x- l M 

1 ippard, Lucy R "James Rosenquist Aspects ol 
.i Multiple Art [rtforum tl os Angeles) 4. no 4 
(Dec 1965), pp 41-45 

Litt. Steven "Icon of the Sixties." The Plain 
Dealei (< leveland, Ohio). Ocl 26, 1991, sec K 
pp. 1-2 

I oft, Kurt Film on James Rosenquist 

Paints Artist into a I orner." I h< Tampa Tribune, 

Mi) 22. 1987, set F,p 3 

I ,,n Knrt "James Rosenquist." /'"■ /,»"/>.' 
Tribune, Ma) 20, 1984, sei G.pp 1- 2 

I oring, |ohn James Rosenquist's Horse 
Blinders." Irts Magazim (NewYork) 4 
I 1 l')73).pp '.4 <o 

I ucofl Morton and Donald I' Mvers "Flying 
Bacon Thi Miami News I >e< B, 1981, sec A. 
pp. 5-6 

Marker. M..r\ Ann Inside the World "I a I'op 
Artist " M Petersburg Times, Maj 12 1987, D 
PP 1.4 

Martin, Judy Wells "'Days ol Miracles Haven't 
Ended for Murals Wizard.' "« FloridaTimes- 

l nion (J.uksonv. lie). June 14, l'<7S, see A, p. 10. 

McGill, Douglas t "< me ol Pop Art's Pioneers 
Is Making Waves Again." r7i< New York Times, 

June 22 I ''St. set 2 pp I. 2'< 

Mi « nil, I »ouglas i "Pop Artist Rearranges 
Modern Lite Sarasota Herald-Tribune, June 29, 
1986, sei G.pp 1,4. 


Mi < .ill I touglas ( "Pop Goes the Brush" 
St Petersburg Timt f, |ul) 6, 1986, se< I pp I I 
McGuigan,( athleen "Newsmakers." Newsweek 
(Los Angeles) 99, ao, 4 (Jan 25, 1982), p 61 

M[essinger] 1 [isa] M "Twentieth < entur) 
James Rosenquist " In "Recent 
\ Selection 1993-1994," special issue ol Tht 
Metropolitan Museum oj \>t Bulletin (New York) 
52,no 2 (fall I994),p 73 

M[essinger]., L[isa] M "Twentieth < entur) 
fames Rosenquist " In "Recent Acquisitions 
A Selection 1995 1996 "special issue ol Tin 
Metropolitan Museum oj in Bulletin (New York) 2 (fall I996).p 64 

Miro, Marsha Stai I Kiel Invades 1 »IA Detroit 

i „, /•„... Feb I". 1987, se< I >. p 8 Photographs 
by Mann\ Crisostomo 

Nelson. Garet "Artist Honored lor I'op 
Prowess." Si Petersburg rimes, Hernando 
rimes ed . Ma) 7, I987,pp. 1,7 

Osborne, < atherinc "A brush with Greatness." 
Profiles, in, (New York) I. no I (Mar 1988), 
pp 14-35 72 

Per reault, John "An [bo Much of the Same." 
The I Wage Void (New York) 13, no 19 (Feb. 22, 
1968). p 18 

Pincus-Witten, Robert Rosenquist and 
Samaras The Obsessive Image and Post- 
MinimaUsm." irtforum (New York) I 
(Sept 1972), pp '< 7 ' 69 

Porter. Hob "Rosenquisl Has Local he" 
Dallas nimei Herald, [an 6 I966,sec A.p 14 

"Prints and Portfolios Published [ames 
Rosenquisl Night Transitions." Thi Print 
Collector's Newsletter (New York) l6,no 5 
(Nov.-Dec. 1985), p, 17'' 

Prints and Portfolios Published James 
Rosenquist, Off the Continental Divid* 

I'h, Print Collector's Newslettei (New York) 5, 
„o 1 (Jul) \ug 1974), p 66 

"Prints and Portfolios Published James 

Rosenquisl I ime Moor I ime D'Oi 

//„• Pn'fii ( ollector's Newslettei (New York) 21, 

no. I ( 1990), p 26 

Reit". Kit.i "James Rosenquisl Painting 
Auctioned tor Record Price." The NewYork 
rimej,No\ 13, 1986 p 21 

"Rosenquisl Hearst Mural." I" World (New 
York) 12, no I (Ocl No> is, I987),p. 1. 

Sandberg, Bets) I ife James Rosenquist." 
rhi Daily Freeman (Kingston, NY), Dei 
1986. p. 7 

Scull Robert ( "R« the F-lll r\ ( oil 

Notes" The Metropolitan Museum oj I" Bulletin 
(NewYorki 26,no 7 (Mar I968),pp 282-83 

Shepard, Richard I loWhat Lengths Can Art 
i „, //„ NewYork Times, May 13, 1965, p. I 

Slesin, Suzanne New York Artists in Residence: 
James Rosenquist." Artnews (Nev. York) 77. 
no. 9 (Nov 1978), p. 70. 

Sparks, Esther "James Rosenquist." In Sparks 
/ un;".il limited Art Editions 1 History and 
Catalogue The First Twenty-five Years, pp 256 69 
Exh cal ( hicagO The Art Institute ofChii 
NewYork: Harry N Abra.ns. 1989 

Stallings, Dianne " The Good News:Aripcka 
Artist's Mural Lures S2 09 Million" Si Petersburg 
Times, Hernando Times ed., No\ 14 1986, 
pp. 1,10 

Sterckx, Pierre 'La peau du collage selon Ibm 
wesselman [sic] et James Rosenquisl ' Irtstudio 
(Paris).no 23 (winter 1991), pp *4 95 

Stevenson, Wade. "Rosenquist, le peintre de 
I'imaginaire-reel." KXt Siich (Paris) no J' 
(June 1975), pp 155 61 Inns Georgette 

Story, Richard David "James Rosenquisl " USA 
Today | Arlington. Va.). Nov 13, 1986, se< D, p 5 

Swenson.Gem "The Figure a Man Makes' 
Parts I 2 in and Irtists (NewYork) 3. no I 

1968), pp 26- 29; no 2 (Ma) I9i 
pp 42 4S Reprinted is "James Rosenquisl 
The Figure a Mm Makes" in "Gene Swenson 
Retrospective for a Critic Ocl 24-1 1 
1971 "special issu* ol 17i« Register of the Museum 
oj \n (Lawrence; a publication ol the University 
of Kansas) 4 nos ',-7 (1971), pp 53-81 

Tallman, Susan "Big." irts Magazine (Nev. Y 
65, no 7 (Mar 1991), pp 17-18 

I illiui. Sidne) "Rosenquisl at the Met -\ 
Garde or Red Guard: Irtfomm (Nev. York) '>. 
no 8 (Apr 1968), pp 46 49 

Trini.Tommaso "L la via Rosenquist." Domus 
(Milan), no JS-s (< » C | 1967) pp 46 4'' 

In Italian uid I nglish 

Tully.Judd "Rosenquist Work Brings 
Million ' The Washington Post, No\ 13,1986, 
p 13 

Ivkr. Ken "The Piper Dance.' In Masiet Prints 
by Hockm y, Johns, Rosenquist, and Stella from the 
Ulja Collection, pp 1 14-47. Exh cal Vaduz 
1 iechtenstein I he Lilja Art I und I oundation in 
association with the Henie-Onsl id Arl < enter. 
Hovikodden, Norway, and Azimuth Editions 
1 ondon, 1995 

van der Marck.Jan ' Of< ours, it- Art, and the 
Bacon Reall) Flies." Thi Miami News Feb is 
1982, set r\ p 9 

"The '' I )i..r\ 'Like Sending a Rockei into 
spue" Irtnews (Nev. York) 78,no 5 (Ma) 5 
I979),pp 12-13 

Wallach.Amei "Making a Mural Emerge fo 
Printing Press." Newsday (NewYork) Ma) 19, 
1974, pan 2,pp 19 20 

Wolf. Erie.. "James Rosenquisl In Sam 
Hunter Selections from tin Ueana and Michael 
Sonnabend < ollttlion Wbrh from the 1950s and 
1960s pp 85-87 Exh cat.,TheArl Museum 
Princeton University, 1985 

Ynclan, Nery "'Star 1 hiefTakes Ofl to I inal 
Day Acclaim." Uf Miami Herald June 6, 1983, 
set B,p J 


This tection includes books, chapter: oj books, sections 
qj dissertations, and brochures unrelated to ■ xhibitions, 
as well as telecl book reviews s ""'" «ted below may 
also appeal in the I thibition History 

•\dlei Edward |crome "James Rosenquisl 
Chaptei in "American Punting and the 
Vietnam War, pp '" I 92 Ph D diss . 
New York University, 1985 

Amaya, Mario. "James Rosenquisl In Vmaya 

and iftei Ness York Viking P 
1966, pp ''i 96 

Brundagi Susan i d James Rosenquist, Hi 
Paintings Thirty Years, Leo Castelli NewYork 
i ... i ,..i, Hi Galler) in assoi iation with Rizzoli, 
199 i Published limultani ously with the 
exhibition James Rosenquist i7i< Thirtieth 
[nniversary I xhibil • Hi < rallery, 

New V 

—"What It Is" Irtnews (New Yorl 94 

no ! (Feb 19 

t Henn ( onstam i W Timi I Hut, Jam* i 
Rosenquist < omplett Graphics 1962 1992 New 
York Rizzoli, in association with tin I Iniversit) 
Art Museum, ( .ihiornia State Univei lit) I ong 
Beach, 1993 Published in i onjuni don with the 
exhibition organized b) the Univenit) Art 
Museum ( ilifornia State University I ong 
Bi a< h. and originating at the Walker Art (. enter. 


Goldman, Judith James Rosenquist NewYork 
Viking Penguin, 1985 Published simultaneous!) 
with the exhibition Janus Rosenquist Paintings 
1961 1985 organized b) the I lenvi i \ri 

— Heaiiin s. I leanoi Hooks Mixing I u i 
( lirls and Pipe romatoes Irtnews (Ni h 
York) J (Mai 1986), pp 44 -^ 

Sandback.Am) Bakei ' Hooks | 

Rosenquisl Irtforum (Ni w York) 'A no I 
D, 198 i pp i > 16 

Jam< Rosenquisl Welcomt to tin Watei Planet and 
House o) Fire, 1988 1989 Essa) b) fudith 
Goldman Mouni Kisco n V [yiei Graphics 

1989 Published on the o< i asi >l i I uropi 

exhibition Welcomt to tin Watei Planet 
originating ai Heland W tterling I laller) 
Stockholm, and organized b) Met Graphics, 
and a traveling Ami rii an exhibition /. 

..„,., Wtlconu to On Watei Planet 
originating al and organized b) ["he Museum ol 

Modern Art, New I 

[if /it! I ommi lioned H d 
Stockholm Painters Posters in usociation with 
Wetterling Gallery, 1990 

I arson, Philip James Rosenquist Tim I 
Mourn Kisco N \ tylei Graphics, 1992 



Oceans and continents have been crossed in order to realize a major mural 
by James Rosenquist within the new exhibition spaces of the Deutsche 
Guggenheim Berlin. The idea of commissioning Rosenquist to create this 
monumental work— an important act of international patronage— was that 
of the Guggenheim's Director, Thomas Krens. After the project was 
launched, he, Lisa Dennison, Deputy Director and Chief Curator, and I made 
several trips from New York to the artist's home and studio in Aripeka, 
Florida, in order to survey the work in progress and to discuss with the 
artist the various and changing directions that the work might take en route 
to its final destination in Berlin. Meanwhile, one of the three paintings that 
comprise The Swimmer in the Econo-mist made its debut at the opening of 
the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao in October 1997, offering a sneak preview 
of its final and complete display in Berlin in March 1998. 

I must extend my greatest thanks to James Rosenquist himself. 
Throughout this evolutionary period, he was admirably flexible, responding 
to questions and suggestions about which way to turn next. The immense 
problem of completing a wrap-around mural revived, in both sheer dimen- 
sions and lofty ambition, many of the frescoed walls of the Italian 
Renaissance. In effect, he has created, more than three decades later, an 
update of his epic masterpiece, F-lll (1964-65). 

Supporting this complex enterprise was a curatorial staff that was 
not only well informed about the artist's work, but that was wonderfully 
efficient and reliable. I refer to Julia Blaut, Assistant Curator, who coordi- 
nated all aspects of this exhibition and catalogue, and to Janice Yang, 
Project Research and Exhibition Assistant, who in addition to her many 
other responsibilities, compiled the exhibition history, bibliography, and 

text photographs. 

Many other individuals at the Guggenheim contributed their expertise 
to ensure the successful realization of this exhibition. I thank all of them 
for their indispensable assistance and dedication. I am extremely grateful 
to Karen Meyerhoff, Director of Exhibition and Collection Management and 
Design, who has been invaluable in planning the installation, and to Jocelyn 

Groom, Exhibition Design Coordinator, who has worked with her. Thanks 
are also due to Suzanne Quigley, Head Registrar, Collections and Exhibitions, 
who has expertly coordinated the shipping and insurance of the works, and 
to Paul Schwartzbaum, Chief Conservator, Guggenheim Museums, and Julie 
Barten, Assistant Conservator, who have supervised the preservation of the 
paintings and drawings. David Heald, Chief Photographer and Director of 
Photographic Services, provided counsel on photographic issues, ensuring 
that Rosenquist's murals be reproduced with the utmost accuracy, and 
Ellen Labenski, Assistant Photographer, photographed the drawings and 
working plans. The installation team, consisting of Steve Plaxco, Installation 
Specialist, Claus Maier, Jan Pippardt, Uwe Rommel, and Kai Volkmann, was 
outstanding. I am also thankful for the contributions made by Marilyn JS 
Goodman, Director of Education; Judith Cox, General Counsel and Deputy 
Director; Gail Scovell, Associate General Counsel; Julie Lowitz, Assistant 
General Counsel; Scott Gutterman, Director of Public Affairs; Julia 
Caldwell, Public Affairs Coordinator; Jocelyn Brayshaw, Chief Preparator; 
Liz Jaff, Assistant Preparator/ Paper; Laura Latman, Collection Registrar; 
Ultan Guilfoyle, Director of Film and Video Production; and Allison Lane, 

Thanks also go to curatorial interns Joanna Berman, Joanna Clark, 
Lai Orenduff, Sonya Sinha, and Daphne Walker, who enthusiastically pro- 
vided assistance on numerous aspects of this project. 

I would like to express my gratitude to Paul Pincus, Project Director, 
Development and Communications; Max Hollein, Executive Assistant to the 
Director; Ben Hartley, Director of Communications; and Kira von Eichel, 
Project Assistant, for their tireless efforts and deft coordination of prepara- 
tions between cities separated by land and sea. 

Our colleagues in Germany have been crucial in bringing this exhibi- 
tion to fruition. I wish to extend my thanks especially to Dr. Ariane 
Grigoteit, Friedhelm Hutte, and Britta Farber of Deutsche Bank, and to 
Svenja Simon, Gallery Manager, Deutsche Guggenheim Berlin. This exhi- 
bition would not have been realized without their hard work and support. 


The catalogue could not have been published without the adept super- 
vision of Anthony Calnek, Director of Publications, and the efficiency of the 
Publications Department. I am grateful to Elizabeth Levy, Managing Editor/ 
Manager of Foreign Editions, and Melissa Secondino, Production Assistant, 
for expertly overseeing the catalogue production. My appreciation also 
goes to Jennifer Knox White, Associate Editor, and Domenick Ammirati, 
Editorial Assistant, for their careful editing of the text. 

Special thanks must go to Margot Perman and Catherine Woodman 
of Real Design for designing this elegant publication. We are also grateful 
to contributing author Judith Goldman, preeminent Rosenquist scholar, who 
contributed an important essay. 

In organizing this exhibition and compiling the catalogue, many 
people generously supported our research efforts. I would like to acknowl- 
edge in particular Richard L. Feigen, Frances Beatty, and Lance R.D. 
Thompson of Richard L. Feigen & Co. and Thaddaeus Ropac of Galerie 
Thaddaeus Ropac for sharing their expertise. I also thank Joanna Stasuk 
and Amy Poll at Leo Castelli Gallery for their assistance in compiling pho- 
tographic materials. 

The staff at the artist's studio provided valuable assistance every 
step of the way. Beverly Coe, Administrative Assistant, and Cindy Hemstreet, 
Administrative and Curatorial Assistant, were unflappable and always 
gracious and precise in responding to our myriad requests. Michael 
Harrigan, Curator and Archival Specialist, provided important materials 
for establishing an accurate account of the artist's career. Thanks must also 
go to Tony Caparello, Color Mixer, Painter, Studio Assistant; Kevin Hemstreet, 
Carpentry, Installer; Darren Merrill, Carpentry, Installer; Vadim Syrovoy, 
Studio Assistant; and John Spinks, Studio Manager. 

Robot Rosenblum 

Curator of Twentieth-Century Art 


The Solomon R.Guggenheim Foundation 

Honorary Trustees in Perpetuity 
Solomon R. Guggenheim 
Justin K.Thannhauser 
Peggy Guggenheim 


Peter Lawson-Johnston 


Ronald O. Perelman 

Robert M ( Gardiner 
Wendy L-J. McNeil 

Vice-President and Treasurer 
Stephen C. Swid 

Thomas Krens 

Edward 1 Rover 

Honorary Trustee 
(. I.nuie Pompidou 

Trustee Ex Officio 
Luigi Mom hen 

Director Emeritus 
Thomas M Messer 


Giovanni Agnelli 
Jon Imanol Azua 
Peter M. Brant 

The Right Honorable Earl Castle Stewart 
Mary Sharp Cronson 
Elizabeth L Dingman 
Gail May Engelberg 
Daniel Filipacchi 
Robert M. Gardiner 
Barbara Jonas 

1 >avid H Koch 
Thomas Krens 
Peter Lawson-Johnston 
Samuel J. LeFrak 
Rolf-Dieter Leister 

Peter B. Lewis 
Peter Littmann 
Wendy L-J. McNeil 

Edward H. Meyer 

Ronald ( > Perelman 

Frederick W Reid 

Richard A. BJfkind 

Denise Saul 

Rudolph B. Schulhof 

Terry Semel 

|. mies B. Sherwood 

Raja W Sidawi 

Seymour Slive 

Stephen C. Swid 

John S. Wadsworth.Jr. 
Cornel West 
Michael F.Wettach 

John Wilmerding 
William T.Ylvisaker